II.Information on the Greek Uprising Reaches America:
A. Anthology of Newspaper Articles
Connecticut Courant, August 7, 1821: The Greeks and Turks.
We cannot be persuaded that all the civilized world sympathise [sic] with the Greeks. There are associations and recollections connected with ancient Greece familiar to all the reading world, which must operate greatly in their favor. Theirs is the page of history on which we dwell with most delight. Their arts and their arms irradiate their name and their patriotism make them estimable in our eyes. But with modern Greece we have bands and ties and common principles which entwine it around our hearts and connect it with our dearest wishes, our holiest hopes. They adore the same God, they acknowledge the same Redeemer. They believe in a state of future rewards and punishments founded on the same promises and the same evidence as we do; in one word they are Christians.- They are humble believers in that system of religion and morality which is believed in by all that portion of the world which do honor to Humanity. Can we then be indifferent as to their success? assuredly not-but if the causes we have relied upon were not enough to enlist us in their behalf, let us ask who are their opponents?
They are furious, bigoted [sic], and persecuting enemies of Christianity. How often, and for how many centuries, have their swords been red with Christian blood! How often have the Turks persecuted to the death, all who acknowledge Christ and him crucified. Did they not for ages raise the Crescent against the Cross and advance against Christendom? Has not all Christendom been in self-defence, compelled to league against the Turks? Have they not always made war against knowledge and burned with a red hot furnace all the books which centuries had gathered together. These Musselmen even now, break into the sanctuary of an Ambassador's Palace, to seize upon and put to death the Christian Greeks. Neither age, sex, nor condition, is a protection against their inhumanity. The Venerable Patriarch, and the Infant but newly born, are alike food for the appetites of the savage Turks. If the Turks now triumph, they will, within their dominions, prohibit the exercise of the Christian religion.
Can we then but rejoice and be exceedingly glad even when there is a prospect that Truth and the Greeks shall triumph over Imposture and the Turks.
A late German statistical writer, Hassel, on the best and most recent authorities, computes that Turkey in Europe, contains a population of 9,482,000. Of this population, the Turks do not amount to one third part, and the Greeks alone, amount to above five mil-lions. This population and the zeal which has been everywhere displayed by the Greeks, greatly animated us in the contest. Our whole hearts, our principles, civil, religious and political, are with the Greeks and against the Turks. We shall not be sur-prised, indeed we rather expect, that Russia and Austria will take advantage of circum-stances, to enlarge the boundaries of their dominions. We may look for another partition among those Potentates; but even that would be a matter of congratulation. Assuredly, it would be better, infinitely better, to have the Greeks under the protection or under the dominion of any Christian power, rather than to have them conquered and ground into dust by the Musselmen. We shall watch and report the progress of this most interesting revolt.
In this empire, public opinion is said to declare itself more strongly in favour [sic] of the cause of the Greeks. To the sympathy excited by a community of deep religious faith, has been added a deep sentiment of indignation at the atrocities of the Turks.
The British Monitor says:-“The Russian army in Bessarabia, under the command of General Wittgenstein, amounting to 70,000 men, had received orders to cross the Danube, and to proceed to Constantinople, and that the Russian fleet in the Black Sea, with troops on board, is at the same time to make an attack on the Turkish Capital. It will require three weeks ere the army of Bessarabia will be able to reach Constantinople.
An expose of the state of the Russian Finances has been published at Petersburg, in a supplement to the Conservateur Imparfait [sic], of the 29th of May. - From this document it appears that the whole debt of Russia, including the balance not yet paid up, of the last loan, reduced into sterling money, does not exceed 47,000,000, being little more than one year's interest in the debt of Great Britain.
The Treasure taken by the Greeks from Ali Pacha is estimated at above 100 millions of piasters. At Nissa, the second town in Servia, the Turkish Pacha was beheaded on the 10th of May, on suspicion of secretly favouring [sic] the cause of the Greeks. The Archbishop Athanasius, with three noble Servians [sic], were executed by order of the Porte. The former was hanged at the door of the church, and his body, after having been ignominiously dragged through the streets, was torn in pieces, and cast to the dogs.
The successor of the venerable Greek Patriarch, who was hung by the Turks, is ascertained to have been strangled by order of the Grand Seignior, instead of dying of fright and grief, as has heretofore been reported. A late but unauthenticated account was received at Moldavia on the 27th of May from Wallachia, stating that the Turks had given battle to THEODORE, whom they took prisoner and beheaded, and that Ypsilanti had fled to Cronstadt.
The population in Turkey may be reckoned at about ten millions, viz:-3,500,000 Turks, 300,000 Jews, 2,600,000 Greeks or Hellenists, so0,000 Bulgarians, 1,370,000 Moldavians and Wallachians, 87,000 Armenians, 540,000 Arnauts, 210,000 Albani-ans, 450,000 Servians [sic], 80,000 Raitzus, 250,000 Bosnians, 800,000 Dalmatians, and 30,000 Croatians.
Connecticut Courant, October 21, 1821: The Grecian Insurrection.
LONDON, August 10
It is now confirmed, that the Grecian Insurrections in Wallachia and Moldavia are wholly suppressed. The Turkish Government was enabled to send into those provinces a strong and well-appointed army, commanded by one of its most experienced Captains, soon after the insurrection became important. As soon as these forces came in contact with the Revolutionists, the result was not doubtful. The hordes of Ypsilanti and Theodore, never acted in concert, and it is fully believed that the latter was beguiled or betrayed by the former, and eventually was put to death by his order. Added to this, the revolutionary ranks were filled with Arnauts, Wallachians, Moldavians, and Hetaeristes, most of them volunteers under a very lax command, and the whole under very imperfect discipline. The result was that they were compelled to disperse, and seek an asylum, individually, wherever they could find it. The Prince Ypsilanti fled into Transylvania, where he was suffered by the Austrian authorities to pass the Adriatic; and it is believed he has since arrived in the Morea. This account is the most authentic, although the Austrian Official papers are silent on the subject. Of the conjectures, one is, that he had headed a small party and penetrated into Servia, had reached Monte Negro, and found an asylum among its independent inhabitants...
... MOLDAVIA, July 15. The wreck of the corps of Ypsilanti, (say 800) have succeeded in reaching Skuleni. The Turks were about to attack them, in position, when the Russians opposed their arm, under pretext that the Turkish balls would fall upon the Imperial territory. On this, the Turks resolved to attack the flank of the Greeks; but whilst they were preparing to do it, the latter passes the Pruth.
Connecticut Courant, November 11, 1821: The Greeks.
LEGHORN, September 3
(From the Courier Français)
The last intelligence from the Levant announces that the Greeks of the Islands are preparing in concert a great naval expedition, which will be immediately directed towards the coasts of Asia Minor. The point fixed for the junction of all their forces is, it is said, the Island of Samos. To judge from the preparations and the great armaments which are making, the enterprize [sic] will be of the most important character. The inhabitants of Samos have been excused from furnishing their contingent for the fitting out of the Greek fleet, being chiefly destined for the intended expedition. On the departure of the last despatches [sic] there were 15,000 Samiot soldiers, completely equipped and armed. Many Greek corps from the other islands had already joined them. The zeal and activity of the Ipsariots are particularly conspicuous. They not only undertake the most gallant enterprizes [sic] them-selves, but they are always ready to take an active part in those which are undertaken by the other Islanders.
It is generally believed in the Levant, that the object of this expedition is to get possession of the town of Smyrna. It is already reported, that the European men of war in these seas will not suffer this town to be attacked. But this report does not appear to alarm the Greeks who maintain, that if European property is respected, they will have no just ground of complaint, and cannot interfere in a matter that does not concern them, unless they wish to violate the existing neutrality, declare themselves the allies of the Turks, and take an active part in the war. Now the captains of European vessels have instructions, say the Greeks, directly opposite to so violent a measure.
The greatest union now reigns in all the Isles. That of Syros, which resisted for a long time, refused to listen to any arrangement with the Hellenic government by two Hydriot Ephori, and is perfectly satisfied with the moderate manner in which they exercise their authority. The Catholics or Latins are also reconciled with the other Greeks, since the incendiaries who excited them to discord have been expelled from the Isles. A similar reconciliation has also taken place in the Isles of Naxos and Santorin, where the principal Catholic inhabitants have recently entered into the service of the Hellenic confederation
Niles' Weekly Register June 11, 1822: Turkey.
A heavy squadron that had been blockaded by the Greeks in the Gulf of Lepanto, has been surrendered to them. This was the fragment of the fleet lately captured by the Greeks, and makes the whole number of vessels taken or destroyed, by that victory, amount to 31-about 20 of which were ships of war-4 of them frigates.
The Janissaries have behaved very disorderly on several occasions-150 were imprisoned at Constantinople and 15 others put to death. 130,000 Asiatic troops are in the neighborhood of the capital, on whom the sultan appears to place much reliance. The Turks are furious for war with the Russians, and it is said that the sultan will himself lead the armies, accompanied by the famous standard of Mahomet; which, being displayed, calls every follower of the prophet to arms.
Many of the provinces are in a state of fermentation; especially Bosnia, Servia, Albania, and Epirus.
The Turks continue their cruelties on the Greeks, though some of the tales seem too horrible for belief. At Kydonia they are said to have employed themselves in hanging and shooting about 1000 children who were too small for the slave market. And it is stated, they had butchered 1200 persons attached to the monasteries of mount Athos, which caused the monks to take part in the struggle. The Turks have destroyed Moldavia with fire-they destroyed 580 houses at Jassy on the night of the 9th March, about which there was a severe battle between the Janissaries and the Tilmes of the former, 190 men were killed and many wounded.
The Greeks are rapidly improving in discipline, and their forces appear now to be pretty well organized. Many battles take place, in which the Turks are generally defeated—but the details are confused and not worth repeating. It is sufficient to say that the Greeks are evidently gaining ground. The barbarous government of the Turks has rendered them desperate. Terror prevails wherever the Ottoman has power.
Niles' Weekly Register, July 6, 1822: Turkey.
The people of the rich land of Scio, (which contains about 100,000 inhabitants), assist-ed by those of Samos, have defeated the Turks and driven them into the fortress, which, it appeared, could not hold out long. The Turks had behaved so inhumanly to the people, that it seemed probable even one of them on the island would be put to death, if taken. These proceedings had caused much feeling at Constantinople.
There is an account of a dreadful battle that took place at Thermopylæ. Mahomet Ali, or Pacha Bey, at the head of 8,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry, intending to pass into the Peloponnesus, was met by the guerillas of Agrapha, who obstructed their march one day. This afforded time for Ulysses to come up, when a general fight took place, which resulted in a glorious victory over the barbarians-s,000 were left slain on the field of battle, among them the pacha-three other pachas and 9 pieces of cannon fell into the hands of the Greeks.
The Greeks had also assaulted the entrenched camp at Patras, and, after much slaughter of their enemies, captured 40 pieces of cannon. It was believed that the Turks would soon surrender. In many other affairs the Greeks appeared to have succeeded-and in no case is it stated that the Turks have lately been victors.
The plague is making great ravages at Constantinople. Many “Europeans” had fallen victims to it.
The British protector of the Ionian Isles has assumed the right to command, and has commanded, the Greek admiral in those seas, not to enter the channel of Corfu-but the "holy” allies, the Turks, go whithersoever they please.
Niles' Weekly Register, July 21, 1822: Turkey.
It is confirmed that the Greeks succeeded in blowing up some of the Turkish fleet, by their fire ships-one of them was a new 74, with the captain pacha and 2000 men. In consequence, the final massacre took place at Scio, and between 4 and 5000 persons were butchered. The Greeks at sea are still able to check, if not defeat, the whole naval power of the Turks; and they feel a confidence of being able to work out their own liberation. Nearly the whole of the Morea is in their possession, and their army therein is reported at 60,000 men, tolerably well armed, but wanting ammunition. The Turks only hold two places in Candia-the Egyptian and Barbary fleets had attempted to relieve them, but they were beaten off with considerable loss. The following is given as an account of the naval forces of the Turks and Greeks-that of the former, in the hands of our brave and experienced seamen, would prove itself the most powerful; the Turks have 6 line of battle ships, 11 frigates, 15 to 20 corvettes, and 20 gun boats; the Greeks in two divisions of 40 each, principally brigs of about 250 tons, a few ships, say 8 or 10, of 4 to 500 tons...
Niles' Weekly Register, July 28, 1822: Turkey.
The governor of Scio has been beheaded at the instance of the sultan's sister, for the part that he took in the massacre in this island; Most of the wives of the late Ali Pacha of Janina have been drowned, by order of the sultan. His lawful wife Wasiliki will probably share the same fate, as soon as all the information she can give is obtained of her.
It appears that the Egyptian troops were suffered to land on Candia-they were then attacked with great fury and a multitude of them were destroyed-many being drowned in attempting to swim to their ships. These Egyptians had arrived at Candia for the very humane purpose of destroying all the Greeks. Some Austrian ships served as transports on this occasion. The Souliots have gained a splendid victory over Churshit Pacha, killing 2000 of his men.
A letter received in England from Constantinople says, “Since I have been here, 14 days, a great number of Greeks have lost their heads; they are taken from their houses, and their heads cut off before their own doors; they are then stripped, and laid with their heads upon their bodies for three days; after which they are thrown into the harbor. The streets being very narrow, I have been obliged to step over many, lying in them daily.”
We have accounts from Vienna confirming the intelligence already received of the destruction of the Turkish fleet, and the death of the captain Pacha. They give the following details.
The chiefs of the Greek navy held a council at Ipsara, and decided on the plan which was after-wards adopted. They called upon all those who were willing to devote their lives for the public good; more than 200 immediately presented themselves, and swore on the cross to execute the preconcerted enterprize [sic], or to die gloriously. Out of these, 48 were chosen by casting lots, and received the benediction of their priests before engaging in their magnanimous design. All arrangements having been made, on the first day of the festival of Bairam, a Greek frigate and five vessels appeared, under a foreign flag, before the Turkish line, as though to take a part in the rejoicings. The 200 heroes, who passed for Englishmen and Frenchmen, were well received by the enemy, who allowed them to enter the port of Tsesme, in order to anchor in the centre [sic] of the Turkish fleet. But scarcely had they reached that position when they carried their plan into effect. In a short time five ships of the line were on fire. The Admiral ship ran out of the harbor all in a blaze, in the hope of escaping total destruction, and run aground on the neighboring coast of Scio, where the captain Pacha was landed, expiring. After this signal success, the two hundred self-devoted patriots retired, without having experienced any loss.
The enterprize [sic] appears to have been conceived and executed in a spirit of self-devotion worthy of the best times of ancient Greece.
Ypsilanti, the celebrated Greek chief, and a victim of Russian cupidity, is said to be a prisoner at this time, in the fortress of Montgatz.
We have many particulars of the late blowing up of the captain Pacha's ship. It was a deed of desperate bravery. The ship was of 84 guns, and had 2264 persons on board, including soldiers and Greek slaves-all these perished except about 180! A second fire vessel struck the vice admiral's ship and set her in a blaze, but not being grappled, they separated and the flames were extinguished. When the fire reached the magazine the explosion shook Scio like an earthquake.
The Greek accounts state the loss of the Turks at Scio to be, the admiral's ship of 130 guns, three others of the line and seven frigates wrecked-the greater part of their crews being drowned in consequence of their fright; that they had also captured 16 Turkish vessels, belonging to another expedition.
M. Bourville, the brave and humane French vice consul at Smyrna, died on the 23rd of June.
Niles' Weekly Register, August 3, 1822
Russians, Greeks and Turks. The pacha of Salonichi had received reinforcements, and defeated the Greeks near Jerizza.- After this, he fell upon thirty Greek villages, and carried away the women and children as slaves.
The Greek population of the Isle of Scio were conveyed successively to Constantinople, and sold like vile herds; the most considerable persons and women of the first families, were treated like the others.
There were accounts at Constantinople of an unfortunate naval combat for the Turkish fleet, but no certain details were given.
Those of the people of Scio that had not been sent off as slaves, were retained for deliberate butchery. The streets of the town were filled with their festering remains! Thousands of Greeks are exposed in the slave market at Constantinople, especially women and girls. Some of these kill each other to rescue themselves from the Turks- some refuse food, and are lashed with whips—some are purchased for the express purpose of being murdered, for which, according to the Koran, “the faithful” will be eternally rewarded. In the vicinity of Salonica, the Greeks, to prevent their wives and daughters from falling into the hands of the Turks, it is said, at the request of the females, had put them to death!
It is stated that the English took an active part in the reduction of Scio-and it is also intimated that they expect to obtain the occupation of this island to facilitate their trade in the Levant! It is hardly possible that these things can be true.
A London paper, speaking of the 10,000 females that were dragged from Scio and sold as slaves, says, “what a howl would have been set up if so many hundred negroes had been disposed of in the same manner!" And adds, “The English government is now upholding the system which produces the white slave trade in the east, and affecting great indignation that it should be carried on by powers of the west.”
The course of conduct that Russia will pursue, in respect to Turkey, is still uncertain. It is strongly reported that the Turks had agreed to evacuate Moldavia and Wallachia, but later accounts tell us that they still occupied them. The British minister at Constantino-ple has exerted himself to the utmost to preserve peace and give up the Greeks to the mercy of the Turks. The Russian army remains in status quo—but it is said that vessels were clearing out at Odessa for Constantinople. The belief was very firm in London that there would not be any war, and the king of France, in reply to an address from the chamber of peers, on the 10th of June, says—"Since the opening of the session I have received accounts which assure me that peace will not be disturbed in the east. It is with the highest satisfaction that I announce to you this intelligence.” On the other hand, it is stated that the Porte has not committed himself as to the evacuation of the two provinces—that the soldiers of the marine had risen in insurrection against their chief officer, because he had recommended pacific measures—and that Alexander would soon renew his armies on the frontier. Our opinion still is, that his love of “legitimacy” and respect for the "holy alliance,” will not cure him of his love for Turkey.
Niles' Weekly Register, August 17, 1822: Turkey
A great number of Greek hostages were slaughtered at Constantinople on the 25th May-some of whom were lately among the most respected merchants in the Levant-others were distinguished prelates. This affair has been urged in parliament, and lord Londonderry, in reply, said that the enormities were greater than they had been represented in the papers, but that none of the persons had been entitled to British protection, except so far as humanity was concerned, and that lord Strangford had exerted himself to save them, but without success. A member inquired whether the minister could give any account of the new slave trade recently established in the east, for amiable and accomplished christian females, by a government which was encouraged and supported by the free and enlightened administration?
The murderers were yet at work at Scio. The barbarians promised an amnesty-the generous French consul proclaimed it, and pledged himself for the sultan's pardon-the people surrendered their arms, and a general massacre followed; 78 persons detained as hostages in the fort, were first cut to pieces, then the unresisting inhabitants of thirteen villages were put to death with the most refined cruelties. Some few had escaped to the mountains, and the French consul's house was filled with women and children, who were nobly protected by him. The whole island is said to be a sepulchre [sic].
The entire amount of persons slaughtered at Scio, or carried off as slaves, is estimated at one hundred thousand! This was one of the most populous and delightful islands in the world, in a very high state of cultivation and improvement, and had famous schools, hospitals, and libraries, &c. all which are swept away ...
THE GREEKS. The following address from the Greeks at Constantinople, to their brethren in London, cannot be read without the deepest emotion:
Constantinople, May 25, 1822
Dear and beloved brethren and countrymen in London,
We doubt not that the news contained herein must have already reached you and fallen like a thunderbolt on your hearts. What more dreadful than the knowledge that our illustrious and innocent countrymen-ten of them in prison here—and those in the castle of Scio, ninety-five in all, universally esteemed and respected, chosen and held as hostages for more than a year past, at least, without a single motive, without even the shadow of a personal accusation against them, have been barbarously executed! We at first deeply lamented the unmerited restraint put upon the persons of those now no more. Their death, ignominious and cruel, in the first burst of grief, nearly paralysed [sic] our faculties; but these we look upon now as enjoying eternal and immutable felicity. Our pity no longer is then due, but it flows for those unfortunates who have survived, and who henceforth are doomed to have tyranny unexampled in history and deprivations of every kind. Who can without shuddering read of the total ruin, the universal desolation, of our famed and once happy isle-the destruction of all its inhabitants, nearly one hundred thousand, who, except a very few, that almost miraculously escaped from these ill fated shores, have fallen victims to the sword, to fire, hunger, and slavery, that worst of all evils? Who can, without feelings of indignation mantling their cheeks-without execrating the perpetrators of these horrid acts, behold a whole city, lately so flourishing, now one heap of ruins-whole villages, innumerable country seats, a prey to the flames. Our celebrated school library, hospital for the sick and for the lepers, lazaret for those attacked with the plague, hundreds of churches richly adorned-all one confused mass of smoking rubbish. Our island lately so much frequented by Europeans, and more especially by the English families of the first rank, will now have only their ashes to show to the passing strangers. Nor is this so dreadful in itself. The most dire of our calamities—the slavery of so many respectable women, young people and children of both sexes, sent off to the different parts of Asia–the markets of this city and Smyrna filled with women and young people of the first rank, and who have received the best education. What can be more dreadful than this? Happy, thrice happy, those whom the steel of the assassin has snatched from scenes so harrowing to the feelings! How miserable those still suffered to exist-who see the sufferings, hear the cries and piteous accents of their wives, children and relations; and are witnesses to the barbarous treatment this devoted and innocent people receive from the wretches who have them in their power! What can be laid to our charge? We, poor Sciots, who, form the beginning, have remained faithful, are rewarded with death and slavery! It is well known that, as soon as the Porte heard of the insurrection in the Morea, and sundry islands of the Archipelago, it sent here a Pacha with three tails, having with him about three thousand troops; the whole of the expenses of the garrison was defrayed by our island, which in the course of about fourteen months paid more than 2,700,000 piastres, each according to his means. Besides this, the Sultan ordered a choice to be made of sixty of the most considerable and respectable from our countrymen, beginning with our archbishop Plato, the elders, and other principal inhabitants. The motive in thus treating us was no other than a mean spirit of envy and jealousy at the reputation for riches, which some of us had acquired by an active life spent in commercial pursuits, and at the laws and institutions so superior in our island, even to those of the capital. When the news of the invasion of the imprudent Samiots first spread in Scio-the principal inhabitants waited on the Pacha to appraise him of it-what was his answer? To send into the castle, as hostages, some more of those innocent men, and to transport all the provisions out of the city into the citadel, not leaving any whatever for the poor inhabitants of the city, who were so numerous. A month after, when the Samiots landed, the Pacha sent some of the hostages, with several Turks, to prevail on the Samiots to evacuate the island, but they imprudently resolved to advance, and told these ministers of peace that they would sooner put them to death than do so. The Pacha then shut himself up in the castle with all the military, taking with him all the hostages. It was understood that a number of peasantry had joined the Samiots; they were, in a manner, forced to it, being apprehensive of the Samiots them-selves, and they were only armed with sticks and staves. Eleven days after, the Turkish fleet arrived at the island, and landed 15,000 soldiers, or rather assassins, who, joined by the 3,000 in the castle, being unable to attack and defeat the 3,000 Samiots, used their weapons against the innocent and disarmed inhabitants, and turned their fury against women and children, killing, burning and taking in slavery all the inhabitants of the place; the men they slaughtered, the women and children they brutally treated, and huddled together in one of the large squares, which contained several hundred of the most respectable families; they have not left a stone upon a stone, all destroyed, all ruined; it would fill volumes to recount the different scenes of horror with the ruffians were guilty of; humanity shudders at it. But this universal desolation had not yet satisfied the blood-thirsty followers of Mohammed; they had heaped upon their trembling and tender victims all the bitterness of their fanaticism; ninety-five men, the first of their nation, both as to character and property; men who had always followed the paths of rectitude in their commercial transactions, whose relations were established in almost every known commercial city in the known world; men innocent of any machination against the Turkish government, and who could not, if even they would, have been participators in the rising of the island, since they had been fourteen months under the grasp of the Turkish Satrap. Ten of these were at Constantinople, the remainder at Scio. Lord Strangford made strenuous efforts to save them; neglected no remonstrances, evinced the greatest ardour [sic] in the cause of suffering innocence, and thought he had succeeded in sheltering them from their impending fate, having obtained a promise from the Porte that no harm should be done them, when it suddenly gave orders for their execution; the ten in Constantinople were beheaded, and the eighty-five in Scio were hung outside the castle, in that very square where so many slaves were placed in sight of the Turkish fleet, who had their decks covered with Greek slaves; oh! how the heart sickens at such refinement of cruelty, and turns with loathing and horror from that hell-born malice that could take delight in deriding the mental agony of the innocent sufferers in this tragic scene. What a number of wives were forced to be spectators of the cruel death of the husbands of their affections; to see, at the same time, their sucking babes torn from their breasts! Thus bereft, at once, of their support and hopes-many, driven to despair by this barbarous usage, threw themselves into the sea; others stabbed them-selves, to prevent the loss of honor-to them worse than death, to which they were every moment exposed from the barbarians.
But alas! let us draw a veil upon those who have thus sunk untimely into the grave; let us not harrow up your souls with the recital of these atrocities; their sufferings are over, and their felicity, let us hope, begun. It is now time to turn your sympathy towards the unfortunate survivors of the general wreck, to call, dear countrymen, your attention to the miserable, naked state of thousands of our Sciots, with which the markets here, at Smyrna and Scio, are glutted. Picture to yourselves children of the tenderest age, till not nursed with the most delicate attention, now driven about with only a piece of cloth around their infantine limbs, without shoes or any other covering, having nothing to live upon but a piece of bread thrown them by their inhuman keepers; ill-treated by them; sold from one to the other, and all in this deplorable situation exposed to be brought up in the Mahometan religion, and lose sight of the precepts of our holy religion. We see all this-yes, alas! what can we do here, reduced to three or four who, if found out, would be exterminated without mercy? What we could do we have done-but how little among so many claimants to our charity? You, brothers, friends and countrymen, are in the capital of England, the centre [sic] of philanthropy, who live among a people always famed for their generous feelings towards the unfortunate-for their dislike to tyranny, and their support of the oppressed, beg, pray, intreat, appeal to their feelings, call upon them, as Britons, as men, as fellow beings-it is in the cause of humanity and religion; they cannot, they will not be deaf to your prayers and exertions; they will afford us, as far as lies in their power, the means of redeeming the captive, of aiding those families that are in a state of nudity and starvation, who will soon arrive in almost every port of the Mediterranean, when they have been enabled to fly from a yoke worse than death. We rely upon your endeavors, and still more upon the high character of the nation among whom you inhabit—thousands of hands are raised towards you to claim your interference in behalf of your oppressed countrymen. Thousands of hearts will feel grateful for your assistance. Brethren and countrymen, exert yourselves on behalf of humanity-with tearful eye we cordially salute you, and beg you will pray to God for our safety
Your Brothers and Countrymen.
Connecticut Courant, August 20, 1822: Extract of a Private Letter from a Young Greek.
SMYRNA, May 15.
My dear brother-Prepare yourself on reading this letter to summon to your aid the strength of your character; the blow which has struck us is so terrible that all my reason is required not to succumb under it. This opening alarms-you estimate at once the extent of our misfortunes-we have to weep for our country, the beautiful Scio, in the power of our barbarous enemies-we have to deplore the loss of our numerous family.
Of all our relations my youngest sister alone escaped; by a miracle, owing to the protection of a generous Frenchman, she has been restored to my embraces. How can I speak to you of our father? Alas! this venerable old man now implores the Supreme Being for his country, and for the unfortunate children who have survived him. The following are the details of his dreadful assassination:-You know that he and our two brothers, Theodore and Constantine, and your father-in-law, were amongst the hostages shut up in the castle on the 8th inst., they went out with the archbishop, and it appears that, notwithstanding the promises of the barbarians, they had been all the times confined in dungeons; they were placed in two lines, and were either hung or put to death with prolonged torments.
Our father and his companions witnessed with tranquility the preparations for their execution, and these martyrs to their fidelity did not lose their presence of mind for a single instant. Our sister Henrietta is a slave: and I have not yet succeeded in discovering to what country of Asia the infamous ravishers have carried her. Nor have I yet been able to obtain the least information respecting the fate of our dear mother and three other sisters; the destiny of your wife and her family has also escaped my search. In short, our misfortunes are so great that I can scarcely credit them.
On the 11th inst. I quitted Scio-saved by a miracle from the dangers of the most sanguinary catastrophe, of which any one can form an idea. But I do not feel that joy which one might experience on being delivered from the dreadful perils to which I have been exposed. Hatred and indignation against our executioners are the only sentiments, which can henceforth dwell in my heart. Thanks to the European costume, which I have adopted; the captain of an English vessel agreed to take me on board; but my dreadful situation interested neither Turks nor Englishmen. The captain of the vessel would not allow me to embark till I had reckoned out to him 300 piastres, and it was not till after he had examined them one by one, that I received permission to set my foot on board the vessel: whatever was my danger in remaining longer on board the chaloupe. I have left the island in ashes. The Turks, after pillaging all the houses, set them on fire, and joining sword to fire to demolish them to the last stone, in the hope of finding concealed treasure.
Throughout the opulent Scio only fifteen houses are standing, containing our mothers, our sisters, and our daughters, reduced to the most dreadful slavery. There the monsters profane every thing to gratify their rage and their passions; and often the virgins, whom they have sullied by their embraces, receive from themselves the death, which they wish for. All the chateaus, which rendered our island the most agreeable in the Mediterranean, our academy, the library, the superb edifices of Saint Anaigiroso, Saint Victor, the apostles, 86 churches, and upwards of 40 villages, have been consumed by the flames.
The ferocious incendiaries then scoured the mountains and the forests, and they are now at the 24th village of Mastic. These tigers, a thousand times more cruel than those of the forest, have vented their hatred upon the dead, which they bear to the living. They opened the tombs, and threw into the streets the bones of our fathers, and the corpses of their own victims were dragged by the feet through the Brooks.
Every day [sic] women of the first families in the island are exposed to sale in the public markets; articles of great value, such as the sacred vases of the Greek and catholic churches, and the habiliments of the priests, are, by these wretches, sold at a vile price. Through the intervention of the charge d'affaires of the French consulate I have succeeded in purchasing thirty-five women, whose names I sent you, and who are now in safety at the consulate.
Since my arrival here, the same scenes have been renewed every day: there are sales of diamonds, rich pelisses, jewellery [sic], chalices, fine stuffs, in short, all kinds of valuable articles, which are in the streets, and are given away for nothing. How should it be otherwise, when all the inhabitants of Asia, from children of 15 to old men of 80, embarked every day for Scio, from whence they return laden with our spoils? We can only return our thanks to the Europeans who reside at Smyrna; they have done all they could to purchase our women; to purchase all, the treasures which the country of HOMER possessed before its disasters, would scarcely suffice. Amongst the ravishers of them, there are some with souls so atrocious that they will not listen to any species of arrangement.
One of these monsters refused 10,000 piastres for the ransom of the wife of Gaba, and replied that he would not restore her for 200,000. I have contributed to the ransom of Theodora Halle, purchased for 5,000 piastres. M. Petrochochino, on learning the death of his brother, precipitated himself from a window; his sister Julia threw herself into a ditch; the other, made a slave, was brought here, where she was immediately purchased. Our good friend, Jean d'André, was killed in his house in the presence of his wife, whilst hastening to save his two sons, who shared the fate of their father, also, in the presence of their mother; the latter has been conveyed in slavery to Algiers.
My hand refuses to trace at greater length the atrocious scenes, which I have witnessed and others a thousand times more dreadful might be added to these I have cited. In one word, the sanguinary catastrophe of Scio has produced the death or misery of 40,000 individuals, for to that amount may be estimated the number of our fellow countrymen and women put to death or reduced to slavery. Just God, when will the day of vengeance come, and what vengeance can ever inflict upon our odious assassins all the chastisement, which they deserve?
Niles' Weekly Register, September 7, 1822: Turkey.
The details of the proceedings of the barbarians at Scio, seem to be more and more horrid, if possible. It is stated that upwards of 5000 children have been hung, drowned or otherwise destroyed by the Turks, putting to death so or 60 of them at a time, by various means, as if it were for amusement!-But yet it does not appear that the Greeks have become dispirited, and, though abandoned by the “magnanimous Alexander,” it is probable that they will maintain their ground for a considerable time but we are now hopeless of their success, unless the infernal alliance of kings against men is shaken to pieces. It is officially stated that 30,000 women and children have been exported from Scio as slaves!
Many troops are arriving at Smyrna from the interior of the Asiatic provinces, and a body of 4000 Egyptians are said to have reached Stancho. It seems that the Persians are still at war with the Turks, and it is reported that they have lately gained a battle near Erzerum. The island of Scio, was the dower of a sister of the sultan, and she has taken up the butchery of the people so warmly, that it is thought the captain pacha will lose his life for his inhuman conduct, though her brother appears willing to excuse it.
A great number of Greek families have taken refuge in Marseilles.
A Turkish frigate was, in July, fitting at Deptford, Eng. with arms, &c. which, it was reported, was to be manned with English officers and sailors!
Reports of the proceedings of the British in support of the Turks are reiterated. The Greeks had released several Austrian ships having supplies for the barbarians, of the condition that the cargoes should be landed in some christian country.
Three Turkish vessels and a corvette laden with spoils and captives from Scio, had been taken by a Greek squadron and carried into port.
There is a report that the Asiatic troops in Moldavia were in a state of rebellion, and had taken post on both banks of the Danube.
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF GREECE.
The Greek nation has taken arms, and combats against tyranny. The rights of the people are incontestable [sic]. The unheard of sacrifices made by that people, have for object its independence, and as it is acquainted with its rights, it knows also its duty. In declaring its independence, it established a central government to defend the former, and to fulfil the second, it is incumbent on the government to attain its object and to render the sacred cause of the people triumphant, to deprive the enemies of Greece of all their means of oppression; in consequence, the provisional government of Greece, in virtue of the law of nations of all the states of Europe, declares now in a state of blockade all the coast occupied by the enemy, both in Epirus and the Peloponnesus, Euboea (Negropont), and Thessaly from Epidaurus to Salonica, including that place declares also in a state of blockade all the isles and ports occupied by the enemy in the Egean [sic] sea, the Sporadian Isles and the isle of Crete.
All vessels, under whatever flag they sail, which, after obtaining a knowledge of the decree by the commanders of the Greek squadrons, or by separate vessels, shall attempt to enter these ports, shall be seized, and treated according to the laws and usages established in such cases. The commanders of Greek vessels shall continue to cause to be published this resolution, till the government have acquired the certainty that it has reached wherever it is necessary. The present declaration shall be besides communicated to all the consuls of the friendly powers in the different states of Greece.
The president of the executive power, A MAUROCORDATO.
The minister of foreign affairs, Th. Negri.
Corinth, March 13, 1822.
Niles' Weekly Register, September 14, 1822: Turkey.
It is distinctly stated, that the Turks, instead of evacuating the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, are strengthening the garrisons in them. The Russian army, except the imperial guards, remained in statu [sic] quo.
On the eve of the feast of Bairam, the 22d of June, the Greeks, stimulated to vengeance by the ravages at Scio, gallantly conducted three fire ships into the Turkish fleet, by which the admiral's ship and some others were in flames. Many lives were lost-the butcher, the captain pacha, half roasted to death, was landed on Scio, and there died in torments. The amount of the destruction is not stated; but the news of the event had produced an extraordinary sensation at Constantinople, and raised the fury of the soldiers to the highest pitch; and a letter from that city says that the “affairs of the Morea assume a dismal aspect for the Porte.” How glorious would it be, if this oppressed people shall shake off the chains of the barbarians, unaided by their christian neighbors?
An article from Corfu states, that the Greek government has adopted a new mode of paying its troops. It has substituted land for money; and the sequestration of all the domains belonging to the Sultan, the Vakoufs, and the Mosques, affords an extent of territory more than sufficient to pay the services of a large army for a number of years. By a decree, issued at Corinth on the 19th of May last, the soldiers already enrolled, and those who may hereafter enlist, are to receive an acre of land per month as long as they continue to serve the state; so that if the war should linger on for several years, every private will find himself, at its close, not only a free man, but a landed proprietor. Those who may be called upon to serve beyond the frontiers of the Morea are to receive an acre and a half per month. The rights of those killed in battle will descend to their heirs, who will receive for the whole amount of the time which the deceased had engaged to serve. Those incapacitated by wounds are to be considered as having completed their engagement.
SMYRNA, May 29
Amongst the number of private circumstances, the following is guaranteed by several eye witnesses. A young Greek female, sixteen or seventeen years of age, of great beauty, was carried off by an Arab, who sold her to a Turk for 300 piastres. Shortly afterwards he offered 3,000 piastres to her new master for the re-purchase of this beautiful Chiot. The Turk, who already felt a sentiment of love, refused the money. The Arab proceeded to the market, met the Turk, and wanted to compel him restore the slave on receiving 300 piastres, the original price. The Turk opposed this, and high words arose; the Arab, at length, in a transport of anger, said, “you shall not have her,” and, taking out his pistol, lodged the contents in her bosom; she fell and expired. The Turk embraced the inanimate body, and mingled his tears with its blood. Recovering himself, he presented himself before the captain Pacha and demanded justice. “You shall have it,” said the grand admiral. “Do you know the murderer?”-"Yes.” “Let all the Arabs be arrested and brought before me.” The order was executed, and the Turk pointed out the guilty individual. “Draw thy sabre and cut off his head.” The Turk declined the office, which was then performed by the executioner.
Connecticut Courant Oct. 7, 1823: The Greeks
The last accounts from Greece are of the most discouraging nature. The Turks were pouring into the Morea, the chief seat of Grecian power, and laying waste whole districts of the country with fire and sword. Many villages were seen blazing at once-women and children were sold into slavery. Bordered on one side by Russia, and on the other by Germany, two of those nations which constitute the “Holy Alliance,” yet they stand by and see a feeble people, descended from noble ancestors, wasted and destroyed-a people fighting more for religious than [...] liberty-yes, that very religion which these allies profess to revere, and from which they Impiously take their name. While they witness the destruction of Greece on one side, on the other another of those holy allies are in open hostility to the free constitution of Spain which abolished the Inquisition of her priesthood and secured civil liberty to the people. The world has never been made acquainted with the articles of this holy compact; they are to be learnt only from the actions of those nations who have entered into it; and if with nations, as with individuals, actions speak louder than words, what are we to conclude are the principles which holds this compact together? It must be another article with them that Monarchy is the only legitimate government, and even in its worst form even that of a Turkish Sultan with his Janizaries; or the unrestrained tyranny of the stupid Ferdinand is more eligible than an elective government, whether 'tis the liberal one of the U. States, or the more limited one of England. At any rate this alliance has betrayed enough of its views to put all other nations on their guard-and we should not be surprised if at some very distant day, a countervailing union among free governments, should be found expedient to put down the arrogant pretensions of this impious alliance, which places the Mahometan above the Christian, and is endeavoring to trample under feet the civil rights of man.
FROM THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER, Sept. 30.
Greece. —We are again furnished with Smyrna papers to the 25th of July, filled with interesting intelligence of the course of events in Greece. It would appear from this intelligence that the Greeks are on the very point of being crushed by the superior power of their enemy, and that their ruin is the more certain, from the want of concert and harmony among themselves. We hope there may be some fallacy in these accounts, and that the condition of this unhappy people is not so hopeless as it is her represented; but we feel bound to say that although the Spectator Oriental, from which we derive this intelligence has always shown very little respect for the Greeks, and as little interest in their cause, or faith in their success, yet we have always found, during the period that we have been accustomed to peruse this journal, through the kindness of the friend to whom we are now indebted, that the intelligence which it furnishes is entitled to much more credit than that which we have obtained relative to affairs is that quarter, from any other source.
The Captain Pacha landed from his feet in the island of Euboea 4000 men. By means of this force the siege of Caristo was raised, and the Turks began to act on the offensive. They burnt all the villages, and endeavoured [sic] to destroy all the houses of the Greeks, and of the inhabitants a few only saved themselves by flying to the mountains. To watch these a small force only was necessary, and the rest of the Turks it was supposed had marched towards Athens. Accounts from Athens are to the 4th of July, when it is said that every thing was in a horrible confusion, from its being announced on the 1st that 14,000 Turks were advancing upon the city and were already arrived at Livadia, and on the 4th were only three or four leagues from Athens. It was not known certainly whether this was a detachment of the Ottoman army marching upon the Peloponnesus, or the disposable force from the island of Euboea.
As soon as the approach of the Turks was known, the Heparch gave notice to the Euro-peans and others at Athens that they must retire to some other place for safety, for he could not answer for what might happen. Almost every body [sic] fled upon this alarm, the Greeks to the island of Salamis, except a little more than three hundred who shut them-selves up in the citadel. They are furnished with provisions for a year, and they cannot want for water, having discovered the ancient spring of which an account has been given, and united with it the citadel by a bastion. This is of very difficult access, and to become masters of it, it will be necessary to scale a steep rock and to force successively five gates. While the Greeks besieged it formerly, although they find a vast number of bombs, they killed but two persons. But at present, the Spectator adds, for military purposes the Turks have no need of taking the citadel. It is only necessary to take the plain, and to fortify the Pireus, which can be easily done. In this place the Turkish shipping would lie in safety. Mr. Fauvel, the French Consul at Athens, withdrew to Syra, and thence to Smyrna.
With the exception of the Acropolis, all the fortified places on the continent but those in the Morea, are in possession of the Turks, and of these they hold Patras, Coron, Modon, and the Citadel of Corinth. The town of Corinth is in possession of the Greeks. The Captain Pacha has established himself at Patras, and from this place he sends his naval detachments without being observed by the Grecian feet. By means of his fleet he transported to Patras from Preveza 18,000 Albanians, who were to advance into the Peninsula from that direction while a larger army entered by the way of the isthmus of Corinth. This latter army, to the number it was said of 40,000 men, under Ibrahim Pacha, had already taken possession of the first defiled of the Morea, and was waiting for the arrival of provisions. It is stated that the plan of operations was not to advance a step without being assured of an abundant supply of provisions, for an expedition where the army was sure to find only a country entirely laid waste. In pursuance of this plan, the Captain Pacha had procured provisions at Patras, until there was not longer any room to store them. In addition to these two armies, a third was assembling near Thermopylae, consisting of several bodies of men from the province of European Turkey. We find little account of the preparations making by the Greeks to resist this formidable invasion. It is said that there is still a want of harmony and subordination among them, and that Ulysses has made an offer to join the Turks on condition of the arrears due to his corps of 2500 men being discharged. It does not appear that the offer was accepted, and it may be doubted whether it was made. It is certain however that he has not performed those exploits which rumor has attributed to him, and that the plan of carrying the present war out of the Peloponnesus was never executed.
The Egyptian fleet, consisting of forty-three sail of vessels, two of which were superb frigates, under the command of Gibraltar, had sailed from Alexandria, having on board a body of 5000 troops, destined for Candia. It stopped at the island of Rhodes, where some excesses were committed by the Egyptian troops. It had sailed again on the 2d of July. It was said that the viceroy of Egypt had undertaken the particular charge of reducing the island of Candia. The plague at Alexandria had subsided. The Greeks continued in possession of the interior of the country, but the Turks were in possession of the four principal places, Candia, Rettimo, Canea, and Sude. The Egyptian feet was seen on the 6th of July near the islands of Sapience, and it was supposed that it would land its troops in Candia, about the 20th.
Such is the picture of the affairs of Greece as it is drawn from a variety of articles in these papers. We hope it may prove a false picture. We have no doubt that the accounts are exaggerated in some of their details. We shall give some translations, containing further particulars hereafter.
Connecticut Mirror, October 27, 1823: WOMEN OF GREECE.
Extract from a letter of a traveller in Greece, dated Tripolizza, 1823.
May 25.—My visits have not been confined to Colocotroni and his brave companions; the Greek revolution has also produced its heroines. You have no doubt heard of Bobolina [sic], the Spezziote matron, who furnished a squadron of ships, and assumed the command herself, when the cry of liberty first resounded through the Confederation. This extraordinary woman was pre. sent in more than one engagement, and displayed the greatest firmness. She is now at Napoli di Romania, having latterly contracted a matrimonial alliance with Colocotroni, the hero of Caritina, one of whose sons has married the eldest daughter, a beautiful girl of seventeen. - Amongst the recent visitors to the seat of Government, I ought to lose no time in making you acquainted with Madalena Mavrojeni, the heroine of Mycono, whose zeal and enthusiasm in the cause of her country merits the very highest praise. Niece to Prince Mavrojeni, one of those early Greek patrons who fell a victim to Turkish oppression, Madalena has been most actively occupied in contributing to the defence [sic] of her native island ever since the commencement of the insurrection. Having devoted the whole of her dowry to this sacred purpose, the object of her coming here is to complete the organization of a corps to be employed at her own expense in the ensuing campaign. Though not in the flower of life, she is still extremely handsome: her physiognomy is perfectly Grecian, and must have been uncommonly beautiful ere the toils and anxieties of her pre-sent pursuits began. She speaks French and Italian with great fluency, converses with eloquence, and seems particularly well versed in every subject relating to the political condition of her country. I had heard, previous to my being presented to the heroine, that so far from participating in this patriotic ardour[sic], her family had done all they could to dissuade her from persevering in a career so little suited to the delicacy of her sex. Having in this second interview, also mentioned, though as delicately as possible to persuade her that she had already made sufficient sacrifices in the cause, and ought now to think of restoring a constitution evidently affected by such continued cares and anxieties, she replied in the mildest manner, that the impulse which first induced her to abandon the society of her own sex, family, and friends, in order to espouse the cause of freedom, was altogether irresistible; and that having in the last effort disposed of her remaining jewels, her only regret she felt was the impossibility of leading her legion to the field, and being present at one of those combats in which she might witness the valour [sic] displayed by her country- man when opposed to their oppressors! Madalena is accompanied by her uncle and two female attendants. I need hardly add, that the virtuous and exalted sentiments which have led to such sacrifices on the part of this interesting woman, do not originate in personal vanity, or that love of adventure which have characterized many females in other places. I can therefore readily believe, that even the most fastidious will not confound her with those whose ambition is directed to pur-suits which more often excite pity than admiration.
Having alluded to the most interesting of the Greek heroines, it would be unjust to omit the name of another, who has carried her enthusiasm still farther. Constante Zacari, of Mistras, (Sparta) is the daughter of a Greek Chief, who was long the terror of the Moslem tyrants of the Morea, and from whom I am told might have furnished a fit model for Lord Byron's Corsair. Taught from infancy to detest the persecutors of Greece, no sooner had the tocsin of war roused the dormant spirit of her country, than Constante Aed from her home, assumed the Albanese costume of manhood, collected a band of fifty warriors, whom she armed and led to the dervanachi, or passes through which the enemy had to make his way. A person who is minutely acquainted with the history of this modern Amazon, assures me that her followers performed wonders, and were invariably headed by their female leader. When no longer enabled to support the expense of maintaining so many armed men, the heroine of Mistras dissolved the band and joined an Epirote Chief, whose corps was attached to the little army collected by Mavrocordato last year in Albania. Severely wounded at the battle of Peta, Constante was among the few who escaped the slaughter of that unfortunate day, and having accompanied the Prince to Misso-longhi, was present during its admirable defence. She is now at Gastouni, where my informant had an interview with her three days ago; when I add that Constante Zacari is only twenty-wo, and a perfect beauty both as to shape and feature, it will be for you to say, whether the poets and painters of England who want to illustrate the war of freedom and independence here, can be any longer at a loss for a heroine? I forgot to mention, in speaking of Madalena Mavrojeni, that she put on a dress of deep mourning when her countrymen flew to arms, and has determined not to relinquish it until the Independence of Greece is firmly established. The person who has furnished the details relative to Constante, represents her as being equally resolved to retain her male costume during the continuance of the war. Although I am not aware that any other female can be compared to those I have named, as to the extent of their sacrifices, the women of Greece have been in general pre-eminently distinguished for their patriotism, while many have even been known to join in the combats waged by their husbands, fathers, and brothers.
Connecticut Mirror, December 22, 1823: Sketch of the Revolutionary War in Greece, for the present year.
FROM THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
The accounts, which we have from Greece for the present year, come down only to the beginning of September; but they bring the campaign by land to a close. It is not probable from the position in which these accounts leave the Turkish armies, that any further attempt to take the field in force will be made this year. At sea, it is probable we shall yet receive interesting accounts of attempts, if not of successes, on the part of the Greeks.
At the commencement of the present year, the Turks were reduced, in the Morea, to the four fortresses of Coron and Modon, (which are insignificant) Patras, and the castle of Corinth, which are important. When the army of Churshid, the commander in chief, entered the Morea, the last year, a very powerful Turkish garrison was thrown into the castle of Corinth, which stands on a lofty hill, at the distance of about two miles from the town. Finding their numbers too great for this confined position, and wholly cut off from all communication with the surrounding country, a considerable part of the Turkish garrison made an attempt to cut their way to Patras. They were surprised in a defile, about half the way between the two places, and refusing the terms of capitulation offered them, they were wholly destroyed. At a subsequent period an attempt was made to throw supplies into the fortress, previously to the arrival of the Turkish fleet for that purpose. To this end, a large quantity of provisions was landed on the beach, by neutral vessels chartered by the Turkish commandant of Patras. A party of Turks from the garrison attempted to descend the hill, to take possession of the provisions; but being deterred by the appearance of a numerous Greek force, retreated to the castle, while all the provisions fell into the hands of the Greeks.
The campaign of the Turks this year was projected on the same plan with that of the last, but with more extensive combinations. From the head quarters at Larissa, in Thessaly, the commander-in-chief was to collect an army to move downward on the Morea. He was to be supported by the Pacha of Negropont, who was to cross to the adjacent continent, and having ravaged Attica, meet the Seraskier at the isthmus of Corinth. The Pacha of Scutari was to descend with the long expected supplies from upper Albania and passing through the mountains of Agrapha, form a junction with the Pacha in Livadia; while a third auxiliary corps under Omer Bey Brioni and Jussuf Pacha, after having been reinforced by a body of troops, to be landed by the Capudan Pacha at Condyla, in Acarnania, was to cross into Livadia and there meet the combined forces, which were to move down into the Morea, at the moment when the feet of the Capudan Pacha, having supplied the fortresses of Carysto, (in Negropont) of CoronModon, and Patras, should appear in the gulf of Lepanto, to support all these movements. The reader, who will be at the pains to compare this sketch with a map, will see how skillfully it was devised. The Oriental Spectator in alluding to it, exclaims in tri-umph, and in capital letters L'HEURE FATALE DES GRECS EST PRES DE SONNER. Unfortunately for the prediction of the enlightened editor, no one part of this plan succeeded. We proceed briefly to sketch the mode of its failure.
At the close of the year 1822, we have seen that Churshid Pacha, the Seraskier, had met the usual fate of an unsuccessful Turkish general. His place was supplied by Djelal Bey, Pacha of Bosnia, who died immediately on his arrival at the head quarters, and not without strong suspicions of being poisoned. He was succeeded by Mehmed Ali, krai-ja, or lieutenant of Churshid, at the time of the death of the latter. This change of the persons of the commander-in-chief, was doubtless among the causes which retarded the operations of the campaign.
The first military attempt was on the fortress of Misolunghi, a strong town in the pos-session of the Greeks, at the entrance of the gulf of Patras. The Turks had already besieged it at the close of the year 1822; and at the beginning of this year, they deter-mined to attempt it by assault. On the 6th of January it was attacked by the Turkish army with great vigor, and the first line of the fortifications was carried. The besieged had reserved their strength to this moment, and made so spirited a sortie, that the Alba-nians in the Turkish army betook themselves to fight, and were soon followed by the rest of the assailants. Thus defeated in the attempt on Misolunghi, the Turkish commanders attempted to move directly Eastward into Livadia. They were met by a body of Greeks on the Aspropotamo, (the Achelores) who successfully disputed their pas-sage. In consequence of subsequent events, and after much individual desertion, the whole corps of Albanians in this army disbanded themselves and refused to keep the field.
With the spring of the year, the new Elections in Greece came on, and more than one candidate was started for the important post of President. The Oriental Spectator appeals to this fact as a proof of the divided state of Grecian feelings, and as indicative of the approaching ruin of the race. We hope it is no bad sign for a Nation to have more than one candidate for the Presidency. The meeting of the elective body took place at Astros, in the month of April. Napoli di Romania had been fixed upon as the future seat of the Government, a purpose for which the great strength of its fortifications and its vicinity to the naval islands, admirably fitted it. But the appearance of the plague, in consequence of the long confinement of a numerous Turkish garrison within its walls, made it expedient for the government to return to Astros, a small place at a little distance on the western coast of the Gulf of Napoli. It appears that the offer of a re-election was made to Prince Mavrocordato; but that, considering that the public good would be promoted by the choice of the bey of Mahni, he declined the office. Mavromichalis was accordingly chosen in his place as President of the Executive Council. John Orlando, a Hydriot, of character and influence, was made President of the Legislative Senate. In an interesting letter to the Philhellenic Societies of Swisserland and Germany, bearing date July 27, 1823, Prince Mavrocordato thus handsomely characterizes his successor: “The venerable and aged Chieftain, beloved for his disposition, well known for his patriotism, and strong alike from his wealth and the general esteem of all Greece.” The election of Mavromichalis put an end to the discontent, which the Mainote leaders had felt, at the election of the Constantinopolitan Prince Mavrocordato the last year. For the rest, the accounts which circulate of these dissensions must be received with great caution. In the Boston Daily Advertiser for Thursday last, we perceive an article quoted from the Smyrna Oriental Spectator, that Colocotroni has openly resisted the authority of the Senate and been thrown into prison. This calumny (for such we presume it to be) has often been repeated against Colocotroni. It is true this general is of the Mainote race, and was discontented that his venerable chief Mavromichalis was passed over at the first election. But that he ever defeated or resisted the government, there is no proof. When Churshid's army passed the mountains in July, 1822, this same Oriental Spectator, charged Ulysses with being bribed to let them pass; and as Colocotroni raised the siege of Patras at the same time and marched towards Argos, the same paper accused him also of having deserted the cause, and of having fled to join the Turks with the military chest. It now appears that the whole was a plan concerted with great sagacity, and pursued with entire success, by the Grecian generals. Ulysses entered into a pretended negotiation with Churshid, promising to leave the passage of the Mountains free to him. Churshid, deceived, passed with his whole force, not thinking it necessary to leave any troops behind to protect Thessaly. Ulysses meantime having despatched [sic] an express to Colocotroni apprising him of the approaching invasion, Colocotroni made a rapid march into Argolis, met and defeated the Turkish army, and slew its General. This was Colocotroni's desertion with the military chest. While he was thus employed Ulysses was in rapid motion in Thessaly, and Churshid was obliged to hasten back to protect Larissa. This was the treachery of Ulysses–But the calumny was circulated and did its office and the truth will not reach one in a hundred who was thus misled.
To return, however, to the events of this year. We have seen that the first operation in the Turkish campaign, the reduction of Misolunghi, has failed. In the month of May, a gen-eral rising took place in the villages about Mount Pelion and the eastern side of the gulf of Volo. This was deemed of sufficient importance by the Seraskier, to induce him to send a strong force to reduce the Greeks. This force penetrated to the Isthmus of Trikeri where it was successfully resisted. The Oriental Spectator failed not to inform the friends of humanity that the isthmus had been forced and Trikeri, one of the most flour-ishing Greek towns, reduced to ashes. In a subsequent number the misstatement was acknowledged: “Trikeri was not yet taken, though it probably would be; only twenty four villages in its neighbourhood [sic] were destroyed.” The event has proved that the Isthmus was never forced, and the Turkish army, without having effected any thing [sic], was recalled to head quarters.
On the first and third of May, the feet of the Capudan Pacha sailed from Constantinople. According to the most probable accounts, it consisted of seventy ships of war of all sizes, and thirty transport vessels. The ships of war, however, in the Turkish navy, also serve the purpose of transports, and a considerable body of men was put on board, to reinforce the various garrisons. Though the general plan of the Turkish campaign was well understood to consist of the tour of the fortresses and a debarkation of the troops at Patras; yet as the Capudan Pacha, the last year, had made a powerful effort to regain Scio, so it was thought, this year, that an attempt would be made on some one of the islands. Ipsaro and Samoz were thought to be particularly exposed, and the most active preparations were made to defend them. At Ipsara, 280 batteries of cannon were mounted on different parts of the coast, itself little else than a rock. Twelve thousand men armed with muskets, were organized to appear at a moment's warning. Twenty five brigs, mounting each 12 cannons, and carrying crews of from 110 to 120 men, 6 fire ships, and 120 gunboats or scampavias were in perfect readiness. We give this statement of the strength of the island with confidence, for we find it in the Smyrna paper. The motives of the Editor in thus letting the Turkish Admiral know what he might expect, if he attempted a landing, can be estimated.
No attempt, however, was made on any one of the islands, in the possession of the Greeks. About the beginning of June, the Capudan Pacha appeared off the coasts of Negropont and landed a large force. This body of men obliged the Greeks to raise the siege of Carystus. The garrison of that place, uniting with the forces thus landed, and the garrison of the city of Negropont, made an incursion into Antica, as far as the walls of Athens. The inhabitants of this city deserted it, at the approach of the Turks, and took refuge in Salamis and the other islands. The fortress of Athens, however, was strongly garrisoned and well provisioned by the Greeks, and the Turkish troops from Negropont were soon obliged to retire, to check the progress that the Greeks were making in their absence on that island. Here ended the co-operation, which the Turkish commandant of Negropont was to afford to the general plan of the campaign.
With the appearance of the fleet of the Capudan Pacha, the Seraskier Mehmet Ali, in Thessaly, put himself in motion. Ulysses at his old post of Thermopylae, and with a small army, kept him sometimes in check; the rather as rumours [sic] began to prevail of a general rising among the peasantry of many mountain villages around the plains of Thessaly, who had, as yet taken no part in the war. The first symptoms of this rising were experienced by the Pacha of Scutari, who, with 8000 men, was to pass through the defiles of Agrapha, on his way to Livadia. The Agraphiotes took arms and resisted his passage, and under the brave chieftain Stornari, kept the Pacha long stationary and cost him many men. A reinforcement, however, of 4000 men, enabled him finally to force his way. We now for the last time quote the Oriental Spectator, the great source, we repeat, from which intelligence, unfavorable to the Greek cause, is circulated in Europe. The editor of that paper, who appears to be an ultra Frenchman, in Turkish pay, in his paper of the 20th of June, which is now before us, says, “the Pacha of Scutari is now at Thermopylæ,” and in the paper of the 11th of July, it is further added, “the Pacha of Scutari with forty thousand men has taken possession of the first defiles of the Morea.” Such intelligence, coming from a spot within a day's sail of the scene of action, was truly alarming to the friends of humanity. There was not one word of truth in it! The Pacha of Scutari, down to the last accounts, has neither the defiles of the Morea nor Thermonylæ, and at the date of this pretended intelligence was struggling hard with about 8000 men in the mountains of Agrapha!
After the reinforcement mentioned, the Pacha of Scutari and the Seraskier crossed the mountains into Livadia. Whether the former was in season to join forces with the latter, we have not been able to collect with certainty from the various accounts from the scene of action. However this be, the Turkish army advanced as far as the neighborhood of Castri, (the ancient Delphi) where they received a check from some Grecian forces posted in the mountains. The road through Delphi lies on a steep hill side, and is capable of being easily defended. Here the Turkish commander made a halt, either for his reinforcements to arrive, supposing him not yet to have been joined by the Pacha of Scutari, (which we presume) and as we know he was not yet, (nor at all) joined by the army in Acarnania under Jussuf. While stationary here, the Turkish squadron appeared off the port of Delphi. The Grecian generals, who had collected all their dis. posable forces on the frontiers of Livadia, fearing that the Capudan Pacha would take the Turkish army on board and thus transport it into the Morea, and thinking they could better cope with the Turks in the isthmus, fell back on Thebes to leave the pass into the isthmus open. The Turkish Seraskier, however, deserted by the commander of Negropont, and not joined by the other auxiliary forces, neither attempted the march by land nor yet the passage across the gulf. Not to be wholly inactive he laid siege to the convent of St. Luc, a strong fortified pile of buildings within a few miles of the high road from Delphi to Thebes, whither it was reported that the rich inhabitants of Liva-dia had converted all their movable property. Scarcely had the Turkish army invested this convent, when the Grecian generals hastened to its relief. After five days spent in skirmishing and observation, a general battle was fought on the 25th of June. After a long and sanguinary contest, the Albanians, who form a great part of the Turkish armies, fled, and the Greeks, from that moment, were masters of the field. The Turkish camp and baggage fell into their possession. An interesting letter from a gentleman in Athens to his friend in London, published in the Daily Advertiser in the course of the last week, mentioned that the Albanians attached a paper to the gates of the monastery, setting forth, that as they had often found refuge there, they would not allow it to be destroyed.
The wrecks of the Turkish army retreated to Carpeniza, there to await Jussuf from Acarnania and the Pacha of Scutari, supposing him not previously to have effected his junction. Meantime multiplied disasters had befallen the Turkish cause on the side of Acarnania. The Ottoman force, as we have already observed had been defeated in the assault of Misolunghi at the commencement of the campaign, and repulsed in the attempt to cross the Aspropotamo. When the news reached this force of the events at St. Luc, the Albanians there, their brethren in the army of Jussuf thought proper to follow the example, and the greater portion of them disbanded themselves and went home. This left the intrepid Souliote, Marcos Bozzaris chief master of the field at a critical moment. Five thousand men had just been landed at Condyla by the Capudan Pacha, in the design of acting in concert with the army of Acarnania. This army was, in the manner related, reduced to nothing. The force debarked accordingly, fell into the hands of Bozzaris, with a very able body of Souliotes. The individuals impressed at Constan-tinople, fled in detachments to the coast, and escaped by water as they could; while a few only made their way to the General rendezvous at Carpenitza.
The Turkish forces being thus, after a series of disasters collected at this place, the Grecian leaders also assembled their troops from all quarters, and the 19th of August was fixed on by them for the attack. The brave and patriotic Bozzaris resolved to render his country a signal service, at the risk of his life, invited a hundred Hellenian volunteers to join him with his corps of Souliotes in a forlorn enterprise. While the attack was made on three points by as many divisions of the Greek army, the intrepid Bozzaris penetrated to the tent of the Pacha. He failed in his object, but succeeded in throwing the Turkish guard into confusion, increased by the progress of the assault, throughout the line. The baule lasted during the night. Bozzaris early received a wound, but continued at the head of his devoted band till a second shot destroyed him. He lived, however, to see the enemy Ay in all directions. The appearance of day disclosed the Turks in full flight and great disorder, while the field was covered with killed and wounded.
This is the last action of which we have any intelligence, on the continent of Greece. The remains of the Turkish armies retreated precipitately to their old head quarters in Thessaly, and the Capudan Pacha sailed, about the first of September for the Dardenelles, followed by the Greek squadron, which will doubtless attempt some enterprise like those which signalized the naval warfare of the Greeks the last year. The Austrian Observer, a paper that has echoed with great fidelity all the unfavorable articles of intel-ligence from Greece, admits, in the last extracts we have seen from it, that the campaign has failed in all its objects, and is at an end. Such is the opinion expressed in the last number of the Moniteur the French government paper. Such the opinion expressed in the Editorial article in the Daily Advertiser for November 28, which suggested this sketch. Such unquestionably is the fact. I shall, by your permission, Mr. Editor, in one more paper, make a few remarks on the subject of the Revolution, of which we have now seen a brief sketch.
A FRIEND TO GREECE
Cambridge, December 3, 1823
Connecticut Courant , December 30,1823: Greeks.
FROM THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER.
... It will be remembered that the Tunisian and Algerine squadrons formed a part of the Turkish fleet. America knows something of these wretches, for her citizens have been chained by the neck to the wheel-barrow in their fortresses. By the accounts from the Archipelago, the traffic in the miserable Greeks was pursued by none with greater eagerness than by these enemies of the human race; and when their own ships were filled with victims, to be transported from the delightful island of Scio to Algiers and Tunis, neutral vessels, Austrian, Italian, English, were chartered and freighted with fellow christians sold into slavery on the Barbary coast. In Constantinople, the slave market was filled with Sciotes; nay, on receiving there the intelligence of the events in that island, not only were the ten hostages hung, but Sciote merchants, who have been for months in the capital were shot at in the street like dogs, by Janisaries. These things passed under Lord Strangford's eyes, they were mentioned in the British parliament, the noble English spirit kindled at the recital of such horrors. But unfortunately the British prime minister was shocked at the thought of “interfering with the internal administration of Turkey.” We have seen an extract from a work published at Leipzig in 1821 containing an account of the excesses, which took place in Constantinople at the time when the Patriarch was hung. It was our intention to make an extract from it, but the tortures inflicted by the Janisaries on the Greeks, who fell into their hands, are too disgustingly horrible to be repeated.
We ask then whether it is not the right, nay the duty of the civilized nations of the earth to interfere, rescue a civilized christian people, from the hands of these wretches? Is it not too great an insult on the age, to see all the powers at Europe, save one, leagued together, and pouring their armies into every weak and decrepit state, that makes an effort to improve its institutions, under the pretence [sic] that the peace of Europe is in danger from Revolutionists; and yet we see these same potentates upholding the Turkish despotism in the sickening cruelties, which it exercises over the inhabitants of one of the fairest portions of the earth? But the Greeks, we are told, are pirates and robbers, and deserve no better. What, pirates and robbers, that send one hundred of their young men annually, to the different Universities of Western Europe? Pirates and robbers, who in one of their islands, had a library fund, yielding one thousand dollars annually, which is more than can be said of any city, town or college in the United States of America? Pirates and robbers, who, almost with the Turkish scimitar at their necks, published the Constitution of Epidaurus? That the numerous islets of the Archipelago, especially in a time of war, may be the covert of freebooters, Greeks, as well as others, we are not disposed to deny. It was so in the time of Thucydides, and of Julius Caesar, and will probably be so always. It is so in other parts of the world. We have heard it hinted that several Ameri-can citizens have engaged in piratical adventures in the West Indies, and on the coasts of the Spanish Main, and the Gulf of Mexico, of late years. Is the American nation a horde of pirates and robbers: The Greeks, it is further said, are divided among them-selves; they fight and pillage each other. We know they have had their dissensions in Council, and we think it by no means improbable, (though we have seen no proof of the fact) that bands of different races that have been thus unexpectedly brought in arms into contact with each other may have had their fallings out and perhaps come to blows. But there is not any trace of any wide spreading and serious division of Councils. We have read all the intelligence of any note, that has been published in Greece, since the war began, and we can venture to assert, that there has been no degree if such an alarm-ing dissension or division of opinions, as that which prevailed between the tories and patriots throughout the whole of our revolutionary war. There have been no scenes like the cartings [sic] and the tarring and featherings of Boston; no Councils like the “Vermont Council of Safety," with its birch seal; we have not perceived that any thing at all like the Newbugh letters has made its appearance from head quarters; not a Grecian general has aimed, like Arnold, to betray to the Turks the most important fortress in the Morea; one of the islands it is said, has refused to confer in the general government, the power of laying a tax, which is no more than Rhode Island did in 1782: in short, there is no trace of any division of parties among them, and while Neapolitan patriots take to their heels, at the sound of an Austrian drum, and Castillian patriots bribed by French gold, shout for the “Absolute King,” the Greeks, rising from a state of slavery without an ally, a government, an army, a treasury, or a navy, have stood undivided and undismayed, and gallantly fought through three campaigns; each campaign bringing down the Turks in greater force, and sending them back more signally defeated. In 1821, the Turks were in some measure, taken to disadvantage. They had Ali Pacha on their hands in Albania; and 150,000 Russians in Bessarabia, ready to cross the Pruth. It was not remarkable that, under these circumstances, the Turks should be able to send no overwhelming force into the field, against the Greeks. In 1822 Ali Pacha was no more, and the Russian army was withdrawn. The Turkish army penetrated with irresistible force into the Morea: but in six weeks was beaten back. This we were told, however, was because the Persians had fallen upon the Eastern frontier, and the Pacha of Acre had revolted. In 1823, the Pacha of Acre makes his submission, the Persians make peace; the Turks have no enemy to divide with the Greeks the weight of the blow, and yet the latter have, for the first time, gone to meet the Ottoman host, and not a Turkish army has been able to reach the great theatre of war.
Connecticut Mirror, February 9, 1824: Late From Greece.
FROM THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER We are again indebted to a mercantile friend for Smyrna papers to Nov. 21, containing the information from Greece of a much later date than we have before received. Dates from Constantinople to the 12th, state that Mr. Mensaqui, former Russian Chancellor, is to come there under the title of Inspector of Russian commerce, and to be accompanied by Mr. Bacof, the first Secretary to the Russian embassy. Mr. Tatischef would be appointed minister extraordinary and plenipotentiary near the Ottoman Porte.
It is asserted in the Oriental Spectator, that the Greeks in the Island of Candia have been defeated by the Turks, with the loss of about 5000 men-that the Turks in Canea are being reinforced by troops from Egypt, had left their fortifications, had repeated actions with the Greeks, in all of which they were successful, took five villages, where they made two or three thousand prisoners, whom they had conducted to Canea. The paper of the latest date re-asserts these accounts as it states, on further information, but states that they have been positively contradicted by the Greeks. It is added, that in the latest accounts, the Greeks at Hydra admit that their countrymen in Candia had met with the disasters above stated, but that subsequently those who had retreated to the mountains re-descended, attacked the Turks, and after slaying many hundreds compelled them again to retire within their fortifications. The Smyrna editor admits that the truth probably is that the Turks, finding nothing more to combat, had retired to their fortified places with their booty, and that the Greeks had again taken possession of the plains.
We did not find that in any other quarter the Turks pretended to have obtained any positive advantage, except that, as has several times before been pretended, Missolonghi, the siege of which was aided by a Barbary squadron, was on the point of surrendering. On the other hand, the Greeks had obtained several advantages, as will be found related to the following extracts. The most important of these events is the surrender of Corinth which is represented in the papers as on the point of taking place, and authentically announced in the letter we copy. The following extracts are translated from the Oriental Spectator.
ATHENS, Nov[ember] 1st 
Corinth, which has not been able to procure provisions, is on the point of capitulation. A part of the Albanian garrison has already left the place.
ATHENS, Nov[ember) 3d 
It is still said that the Turkish garrison of Corinth has held parlays respecting a surrender, for want of provisions. It is a fact that it will be forced to capitulate, if it is not assist-ed in season by the Algerine and Tunisian division which is blockading Missolonghi by sea, and it is not probable that this division will give up the blockade of a place still more important, for the sake of supplying Corinth with provisions.
Aboulabout Pacha is at Zeitun with 15,000 men. His intentions are not known-but the Turks seem to be every where [sic] taking positions which will leave their rear in safety, wishing to precipitate nothing. They are now masters of all the gulf of Volo, they have no anxiety for Euboea. Negropont and Caristo being two very strong and well provisioned places. Triqueri has submitted. The Agraphiotes are making no further motion-Attica is held in check. 25,000 Turks are blockading Missolonghi by land. The Camps at Zeiton can be brought to act equally well, and as convenience demands either on Euboea, Attica, the canton of Aspro Potamos, finally on Seloni, Lepanto or Missolonghi. The Ottomans march every where without resistance and their power and superiority over the Greeks is every where acknowledged. The business, however, is not yet finished, and perhaps we are destined to see a fourth campaign. But as, among other reasons, the localities have prevented the Turks from arriving at the proposed result: that of reducing Greece to submission, it is still more certain that the Greeks, by their own means alone can never reach the end of their desires, can never succeed in establishing their own independence. They are generally sensible of this, their generals alone will not feel it-accustomed to command, every idea of submission to the Grand Seignor, or to anyone else shocks them, and irritates their presumption. Out of about five hundred thousand souls who occupy the Peloponnesus, there are four hundred and fifty thou-sand who suffer and murmur silently at this state of things-and there are fifty thousand individuals bearing arms who gain as well as lose by it. More than a wish is necessary to make them act. Chance alone puts them in motion here and there. How many fine things will be said in the halls of Philhellenes if Corinth yields, and yet it may be safely said beforehand that the reduction of this place will not advance in the slightest degree the cause of the Greeks.
The executive power is transported for the present to Napoli di Romania, and the legislative to Argos, several members of this body are at Salamina, and purpose to pass over the Peninsula.
The Philhellenes of distinction have arrived at Hydra-they were well received there, and are lodged in the finest houses. It is said they have made very singular propositions to the Greeks with regard to the island of Rhodes-we have had nothing but projects for a long time.
MANIFESTO BY THE SUBLIME PORTE.
We have devoted a good many columns to the pros and cons regarding the Greek question, but the following is the shortest and best article on the wrong side, that we have seen.
[Translated for the Salem Gazette.]
Important State Paper.
BY THE SUBLIME PORTE
Allah is Great and Mohomet is his Prophet!
A voice from the new Hemisphere, called America, has reached the ears of Us, Mahmoud the Second, Sultan and Sovereign by the will of God over the Faithful of Turkey and the Infidels of Greece, the most august Emperor who commands the two Lands and the two Seas, the support of Kings, the Seal of Justice, and the Emperor of Emperors. We listen to the voice. We hear that a certain portion of inhabitants of the New World called the African race are held in the most degrading slavery and bondage by the Infidels who profess to have a government that permits freedom to all its subjects equally; that some of that wretched race have been barbarously kidnapped and torn from the arms of their fond parents and wives in their native country, on the shores of the Old World, and cruelly transported in the foul and narrow hold of ships across an ocean of three thousand miles; while others “raised” in the New World, called Indians, have been most cruelly wronged by the Infidels, and have been involved in wars with these foreign intruders, who have been attempting to strip them of the lands and patrimony of their brave fathers. We have learnt too that both the Africans and Indians have made several unsuccessful efforts to throw off the yoke of their foreign task-master.
And it being inconsistent with the rights of the others that the people of the New World should interfere with the affairs of the Old World, and as the pestilent example may prove contagious, and as it is incompatible in the moral dignity of man that conduct so atrocious and afflictive to humanity should be tolerated by those sovereign states which recognize the same international law with the people of the New World, and it being Our duty, as it is Our high pleasure, to aid the cause of humanity and justice on every part of which it has pleased Allah (thanks be to him and all honor to Mahomet his prophet) to place us, for the purpose of governing it according to his good pleasure, and for repressing Infidels.
We, so, therefore, of our own mere motion, in full Divan, our Grand Vizier and Mufti humbly concurring with us, command that an Agent or Commissioner, with the rank of a Pacha of three tails, shall be sent among the forlorn and oppressed Africans and Indians in the other Hemisphere, who are thus kept in subjection by the Infidels of the New World, in order to inquire into their actual condition and to aid and comfort them in their praise-worthy exertions to regain their ancient and inprescribable [sic] rights and re, establish themselves among the independent nations of the globe; and thus to alleviate the throngs and convulsions of agonized man seeking through blood and slaughter his long lost liberties.
Given at Constantinople, in Divan, the 22d day of the month Rebia Elul, year of the Hegira, 1239, (July 4, 1824. [sic])
The servant of the Sultan, my master, whom God preserve!
TAHER ABDALLAH TENNISH
Niles' Weekly Register, July 3, 1824: [Report on the Death of Byron.]
LORD BYRON is dead [...]. Previous to his departure, he said he wished it to be remembered that his last thoughts were given to his wife, child and sister. His memoirs, written by himself, had been deposited with Mr. Thomas Moore, and designed as a legacy for his benefit. By the consent of Byron, Moore had sold the M.S.S. to Mr. Mur-ray, the book-seller, for 2,000l. After the decease of his lordship, his sister and Mr. Moore jointly perused the work, and the former apprehended that certain of the pas. sages might pain some persons living, though in no manner injuring the reputation of her brother. Mr. Moore then put the manuscript in her hands, and permitted her to burn it in his presence. He repaid the 2,000l. to Mr. Murray, and refused to receive 5,000l. which the family of the deceased offered him to repair his loss. Byron was born in 1788. The estate left by him was a large one; capt. Byron, of the navy, who escaped in the Belvidera frigate from the squadron under the command of com. Rodgers, in the early part of the late war, succeeds him in the title, &c. The amount of sums that he gave to the Greeks is not stated, but it was in a very considerable sum.
Greece. The Greeks have sustained a great loss in the death of lord Byron, who died at Missolunghi on the 19th April, after an illness of ten days. His personal services and munificent donations will cause his memory to be tenderly regarded by Greece, when she shall have established her freedom. The national government directed a general mourning for twenty-one days, and obtained his heart, that it might be placed in a mausoleum. The body was to be sent to England. Prince Mavrocordato, in announcing the event to the secretary of the Greek fund in London, says “our loss is irreparable, and it is with justice that we abandon ourselves to inconsolable sorrow," &c. Byron was of great importance to the Greeks; generally acting with effect to keep down differences among them, and leading them to unity of action.
Colocotroni has fallen by the hands of his countrymen, how is not stated. He is spoken of as having been the nurse of discord among the Greeks for the last three years-yet he was reported of as a valuable soldier.
Niles' Weekly Register, July 31, 1824: Turkey and Greece.
Letters from Constantinople are to the 17th May. It now appears certain that the evacuation by the Turks of Moldavia and Wallachia has been determined on. The porte has despatched [sic] several couriers to Bucharest and Jassy to regulate the final evacuation of those provinces. There were only 3,000 Turkish troops in the two principalities.
The captain pacha sailed for the Dardanelles on the 1st of May, for the supposed purpose of attacking some of the islands. He was closely watched by the Greeks.
The patriots have lately captured 18 Turkish transports. At the last accounts, they had about 200,000l. sterling in their treasury, in coin. Their affairs look well.
Letters, recently received from Greece, convey the agreeable intelligence, that the Turks, who had affected a landing in Candia and Negropont, were repulsed at the first mentioned place, with great slaughter. The force of Ulysses at Negropont was considerable, and it was fully expected that the utmost extent of the evil of the arrival of the Turkish troops would be only to prolong the resistance of that fortress. The Turks are said to have abandoned all idea of invading the Morea this summer.
It is stated that two Austrian vessels, when on their way from Constantinople to Alexandria, had been boarded by the Greeks, and several Turkish passengers taken out, who were held until high ransoms were paid. A complaint had been made upon the subject to the Greek government, and the answer was as follows:-
The executive were sorry to hear of the affair, and hoped it would be satisfactorily explained. It was notorious, however, that Austrian vessels were employed in conveying Turkish officers as passengers to the fortresses besieged by the Greeks, and in other ways violating neutrality.
A press has been established at Nauplia, which was sent to the Greek government by Mr. Firmin Didot. It is the second which this enlightened typographer has bestowed on the Greeks.
The friends of lord Byron have objected, in the most positive manner, to the removal of his body to England. It is to be interred at Zante.
Niles' Weekly Register, October 9, 1824
GREECE. The accounts from Greece are terrible. The life of a man is regarded as nothing in this afflicted country. Thousands are massacred in a day and after they cease to be enemies, for victory is not complete without an extermination of the vanquished! But it appears that the Turks have been dreadfully handled, both at sea and on the land; and if the Greeks shall follow up the stroke and destroy the feet of their foes, as it is highly probable that they have done, it is possible that the campaign will be closed, and a breathing time allowed in which something may be done to terminate a war so mon-strous. It is the disgrace of the Christian powers, the "holy alliance,” that they have per-mitted it to go on. They have interfered in several cases much less interesting-but the Grand Turk being a “legitimate sovereign,” is, perhaps, the reason why he is suffered to oppress and kill his Christian subjects; and, it may be also, that they cannot approve of “rebellion” in any condition of things whatever! Indeed, it seems resolved by these royal conspirators that even life is enjoyed at their own special license.
THE GREEK Press. The following newspapers are now published in Greece:- At Missolonghi, THE GREEK CHRONICLE, (in Greek); THE GREEK TELEGRAPH, (in several languages); at Hydra, THE FRIEND OF THE LAWS, (in Greek); at Athens, THE ATHENS FREE PRESS, (in Greek); at Ipsara, THE IPSARA NEWSPAPER, (in Greek).
The Corfu university is now established. There are professors of mathematics, divinity, metaphysics, logic, ethics, botany, rhetoric, the Greek, Latin and English languages, and history. Among the POOR Greeks the Lancasterian system of education is in full operation.
TURKEY AND GREECE. We have dreadful details of events at Ipsara and in its neighborhood. The women rivalled the men in defending the island and themselves. All fought while a hope remained of destroying an enemy, and then they destroyed them-selves, by poignards or by leaping into the sea: the women with their children in their arms! It was the most DESPERATE battle ever fought; and it has already been stated that the Ipsariots fired one of their own magazines and destroyed hundreds of themselves and their enemies together-crying LIBERTY OR DEATH! It appears, however, that about 2000 of the islanders retired to two forts, and there maintained themselves until relieved, but were so separated from their countrymen that they could render no efficient service in the fight. Very few engaged in the battle escaped, but among them was the famous Canari, conductor of fire ships, who, after fighting like a tygress [sic] robbed of her whelps, was seized upon by a few friends round him, and carried him off to Hydra, from whence he immediately returned with a fleet of 70 or 80 vessels. The Greeks then attacked the Turkish fleet, and fired and blew up three of their frigates, commanded by the vice admiral, rear admiral and sub-admiral, the captain pacha very narrowly escaped, much damaged. They also captured several other vessels, and compelled the Turks to fly to Mitylyne. The victory was decisive, and the Greeks then landed on Ipsara, and, being joined by the 2000 in the forts, attacked the barbarians left to keep possession of the island, nearly 6000 strong, who were all cut to pieces. Among the spoils that the captain pacha has sent to Constantinople from Ipsara, were 2000 human ears!
The Turks have plundered two villages on Mitylyne, and murdered all the inhabitants! The Greeks have landed at Chios, and killed all the Turks that were in the village of Wollina! It is truly a war of extermination.
It is estimated that the attack on Ipsara cost the Turks 20,000 men! The population of the whole island was only 12,000, including the 1,500 Albanians who turned traitors-and it is probable that not less than two thirds of them perished! And it appears, that the Turks, provoked, perhaps, by their great loss, massacred the whole of the Alba-nians, and thus got back again the money with which they had purchased them!
Caso has been retaken by the Greeks. The few who retired to the mountains, being reinforced by 2000 men, fell on the Egyptians and killed every one of them. They amounted to 2000 men. Though articles of intelligence from Greece are oftentime [sic] of a very doubtful character, the preceding notices have much the appearance of being true. A second meeting of the fleets was expected. The Greeks, to preserve the islands, are convinced of the necessity of destroying the Turkish marine. It is intimated that the latter is secretly aided by some of the CHRISTIAN powers, who have vessels of war in the Archipelago. Hydra, the great naval depot of the Greeks, will be next attacked, unless the Turkish fleet is too much crippled to attempt it. The place is very strong, and has a powerful garrison.
There were great rejoicings in Greece, and Te Deums had been sung for the late victories over the barbarians.
Connecticut Courant, October 30, 1824: Greece.
CALAMATA, August 3
Tripolitza, the capital of our peninsula, has just been reduced. The Greek army having been concentrated in the neighborhood from the middle of the last month, the attack was commenced on the day that the commander-in-chief, Demetrius Ypsilanti, and the Prince Cantacuzeno joined it. The former held the chief command, the latter directed the artillery. After a large breach had been made in the wall, the Spartiats received orders to enter first, and they were followed by the rest of the army. The Turks made a most courageous defence [sic], but were compelled eventually to submit. The greatest part of the army of Tripolitza repaired after the victory to Patras, which is in a state of siege. The reduction of the latter city is hourly expected. The fortress of Monombasia has sub-mitted within these few days. The Greeks, learning on their entry into that city that the hostages, and all those of their countrymen who had remained in it, had been sacrificed by the Turks, took terrible reprisals on the latter.
The Admiralty of Hydra has transmitted to our Provisional Government the official news of the success gained by our fleet off Samos. The following are the particulars of this important victory, which ensures to the Greeks the dominion of the sea, and will prevent the Turks from engaging in any greater operation:
On the 12th day of July the Turkish fleet passed the Dardanelles; it consisted of 4 ships, 5 frigates, 4 corvettes, and 30 vessels of different rates. It steered first to the isle of Chios, and afterwards to Scala Nuova, where it took on board a great number of troops from Asia Minor, which it landed on the isle of Samos. This Turkish army, consisting of 13,000 men, was received by the inhabitants of the island with a degree of courage wor-thy of the cause which they defended. The engagement was bloody, and for a long time doubtful, but at length the Turks, after a considerable loss, were repulsed to the water's edge, and re-embarked.
It was as this moment that the Greek fleet appeared on the coast of Samos: it was dis-posed in three divisions, each consisting of 30 ships: it anchored in a place abounding with small islands and rocks which it left interposed between it and the enemy. The Turkish Admiral, eager to punish the audacity of these rebels, advanced towards them, and imprudently engaged them in a place where his large vessels had not free scope for their operations. The fight was at first partial, ship to ship, but at length the Greek Admiral, after having remained as if inactive for some time, watching the motion of the enemy, suddenly collected the best of his vessels and attacked the centre [sic] of the Turkish fleet; by the means of five fire-ships be burnt eight Turkish vessels, captured six, and sunk several: the rest of the squadron took to fight, and were pursued by the Greeks, who captured them the more easily, as they were dispersed and could not reunite. A very few only have escaped the isle of Cos. This engagement took place on the 24th of July.
ODESSA, Aug[ust] 10, N. S.
Honor to the Almighty!- Honor to the Christian Religion!-Long live our country!
Hear, my friends, the heroic deeds of new Themistocles and Cimons; hear the recital of those achievements and rejoice. The enemy's feet, consisting of 17 ships of war, and 33 transports, which issued from the Bosphorus under salvos of cannon, and the shouts of the barbarians, cast anchor in Hellespont.
Fourteen Greek gun boats, (barques) which were watching the movements of the enemy, towered their colors, and pretended to take Alight; they met European traders, who hailed them, and asked them where they were bound for? The fugitives answered, with an assumed fear, that dis-cord reigned on the islands; that the Hydriotes and the Sphakiotes had embarked their fortunes and their families for the purpose of proceeding to America, and that they were following the example of their expatriated friends. These ships apprised the Turks of what had passed; and the latter determined to avail themselves of the information. They arrived with a favorable wind and in a very short time, in the channel between Samos and Chios, where they came to anchor. There happened to be in the same roadstead a Dalmatian trader, which is now actually at Odessa, and who has related to us as an eye-witness, an event of the last importance to the cause of the Greeks.- The subjoined is the narrative of the master:-“We were detained in the roads two days by adverse winds. The first day, in the morning, we descried thirty-four Greek vessels approaching us, among which were two Turkish frigates previously captured. At the head of this flotilla appeared a small brig which belonged to the Rear Admiral. We weighed anchor and set sail.
The Greeks fell upon the Barbarians with incredible fury and commenced a terrible fire; a strong wind from the south presently drove us a great distance; but we had scarcely been three hours under sail when we observed the sea covered with Greek vessels; we reckoned no less than 112. They attacked the enemy in like manner. We heard nothing but hideous cries, mixed with the frightful roaring of cannon. We trembled for the issue of this bold attack by the Greeks, but we know nothing more. I do not think, however, that the Ottoman fleet could long resist the heroes opposed to it, had it even been double the number. The battle, it is said, lasted three days.
A vessel just arrived at this port confirms the news of the defeat of the Turks. It is conjectured that as no Turkish vessel had entered the Dardanelles for the last fifteen days, the Turkish fleet must have been entirely destroyed. Some individuals affirm, however, that one ship of the line and two frigates have fallen into the hands of the Greeks: that several were blown up, and that the remainder had sought their safety in flight. This intelligence excited the fury of the Sultan to the highest pitch. He commanded that those among the believers, who had only two pistols, should go and take two others to the arsenal; and he declared that whoever would not obey, should be responsible before God for the ruin of his country and his religion. His infatuated sub-jects, courageous only against defenseless citizens, women and children, have commenced anew their atrocities against the unfortunate Christians.
The Divan is now arming in haste the remains of the fleet, consisting of six ships of the line, two of which are three deckers, and four transports. A number of Jews have been pressed into service. When the Amazon Bobolina learnt that the Pacha of Egypt intended to dispatch no merchant vessels into the Archipelago, she ascended her barge, and accompanied by 44 others which she commands, and of which four belong to her, she is now cruising in the vicinity of Rhodes- We hear that many Europeans are on board the Turkish fleet.
Connecticut Mirror, December 6, 1824
General Ulysses. —Mr. Casimir Degeau, after residing for the space of two years at Athens, in his capacity of French Vice Consul, where he performed very many acts of humanity towards the wretched victims of the war, particularly the Turkish prisoners who were often brought into the city, in August last left Athens for Smyrna. He there furnished the editors of the Smyrnean with the following notion of the Greek General Ulysses, Governor of Attica, and Livadia, which we translate from the Smyrnean of Aug. 21. Since the date of the article, Ulysses has been furnished with funds by the Greek government, to form a new army, and for that purpose has repaired to Salona.
Niles' Weekly Register January 8, 1825: GREEK MANIFESTO. The following is the new manifesto of the Greek government.
Missolonghi, Sept. 21.
Provisional government of Greece.
The president of the executive power, the Greek government having no other care than that of the preservation of the Greek nation, to avoid everything that may lead to its destruction, published, on the information it had received, the proclamation of the 27th of May, which concerned the European merchant ships which were freighted at Constantinople and Alexandria to convey the enemy's troops to Greece. But the government having learned that the said vessels do not con- vey the enemies' troops, but warlike stores, provisions, &c. and as the Greek government takes care that neutrality and the laws of nations are observed in commerce with all possible precision, and as far as the rights of war permit-order.
1. The European vessels, freighted by the enemy, to convey arms, ammunition, horses, provisions, and any other article for the use of the enemy, are subject to the laws of neutrality, and shall be treated by our naval forces according to the usages existing under similar circumstances among the European powers.
2. The present ordinance shall be communicated to the admiral of the Greek naval force, and published in the Greek Government Gazette. Copies shall be sent to all the consuls, vice-consuls and agents of the European powers who are at the Greek Archipelago.
Napoli di Romania, 15th August, 1824.
(Signed) The president, G. CONDURIOTTE.
The provisional secretary of state, G. RHODIUS.
Connecticut Mirror, January 24, 1825: GREEK OFFICIAL REPORT
Report of the Admiral Andreas Miaulis to the Greek Government.
Fellow Citizens!—On the 24th inst. having been informed that the united fleets of the enemies were at anchor in the Gulph Boudroum, (anciently Halicarnassus) we selected ten vessels of war and three fire-ships-and we ordered them to go against the enemies, in company with some Spezziot and Ipsariot vessels, to attempt, if possible, to gain some advantage over them. The remainder of our vessels followed them from afar, having expressly few of their sails spread out, as we resolved not to approach the others till we perceived that the enemy had put to sail, and had come to an engagement. This plan succeeded completely; at 3 o'clock we saw that the united fleets had put to sail, between Cos and Boudroum, and the ten vessels having approached them begun the skirmish. Then we went to join them against the enemy, and towards 4 o'clock the battle began, and in that battle, the resistance and obstinacy of the enemy were worthy observation; but still more remarkable was the courageous impetuosity of our vessels, and more especially of the fire-ships; but as night was drawing on we had no time to shew our enemy the difference between Greeks and Turks, and on that account we were obliged to leave the Strait and return to Jeronta, where we cast anchor. This battle hardly lasted two hours and a half. We lost two fire, ships, one of Ipsara, and the other of Hydra, belonging to Captain Manethas, which the enemy sunk by a heavy cannonading, as they feared its too near approach. The enemy lost, as we have just been informed by an Austrian and an English merchantmen, a Commander of a corvete, thirty men belonging to a frigate, and four of the bravest officers in the cut-down vessel of the Captain Pacha, and many others in the ship which went against Manethas' fire-ship and the nephew of the Turkish commander, who was ordered to go against Samos, with an Albanian Bibassi, commander of 1000 men. The vessel of the Captain Pacha had the yard of its mainmast broken. This was the coup d'essat of the enemy's feet.
On the 27th inst.. the van of the enemy's feet wished to try a second engagement against our van, which was commanded by Captains Pelopides and Rafaelis, but was driven back in confusion.
On the 28th, this was again tried, & whilst the two vans were skirmishing, the whole of the enemy's fleet put to sail. Our van, on seeing this, made the signal agreed upon, and at 2 o'clock, P.M. we left Jeronta to join them. That same evening, from half past 4 to 6 o'clock, we were continually skirmishing between Satalia and Cos, but on account of the narrowness of the Gulph, we were again obliged to retire without effecting much. All the night we were becalmed between Kalimnos and Lazata. The enemy followed us. In the morning, before sunrise, the wind being in favor of the enemy, they hoisted their superb colours [sic], and amidst the sounding of musical instruments, and the heavy firing of cannons, they made towards us; whilst we remained becalmed. How many tears our Greeks shed then! But they were tears of sorrow, because the wind would not permit them to sail against the infidels! How vexed they were that they were aloof and becalmed! If it had been possible, they would with their eager breathings have raised a wind to carry them against the enemy. Every one eagerly observed from what side the wind might be expected, in order to put forth all their efforts, and spread their sails, as their naval science taught them. The men belonging to our fire-ships, each near the vessel which he accompanied, were ready, and only waited for the wind to bear against the enemy. In the mean time, the enemy, after sunrise, began a heavy cannonade on the vessels which were nearest them, and which were ten in number. These, having taken advantage of a slight which then arose, approached, and returned the cannonading in a most courageous manner, although they were only ten, and were opposed to large frigates, brigs and corvettes. At 6 o'clock, A.M. twenty of our vessels, which were rather in advance, having a slight wind, tacked about, so as to make the most of it. The enemy's did their utmost to disunite that small division of the Greek fleet and to proceed to Samos, where they were bound, as we have just been informed. But the Greeks wishing to disunite and disperse the immense column of the enemy, which was of great extent, resisted with the most astounding courage, and threw themselves into the midst of the enemy, with an Ipsariot fire-ship which was near them. The enemy, however, altho' much inferior in naval science [sic], having the wind in their favour [sic], were enabled to prevent the burning of a frigate, and the fire ship was lost without having effected any thing [sic]. At last, towards 7 o'clock, all our vessels had long wished for wind, and then the battle became general. Then proud Pluto, with the wide-jawed Cerberus, must have smiled on seeing on one side the enemy, like a wild cat, bearing down with desperation on the Greek vessels, and on the other side the Greeks, who opposed the enemy's impetuosity like haughty lions, despising such reptiles, and threw themselves on them, as the eagles from the air seize on the creeping serpents, and casting their fires against the enemy as Jupiter casts forth his thunderbolts, and hiding their fire ships from their sight as the cat hides its claws from the rat. At noon, an Egyptian brig, of the finest sort, of 20 guns, fell into our snare. The commander of that brig, named Mehemet, a native of Cos, was one of the most determined enemies of the Christian name. There were more than 300 men on board. Pipinos and Matrosos, two of the Captains of our fireships the former of whom had been wounded, together with one of his companions, immediately ran against the enemy, who began from despair to cast themselves into the sea, and more than 100 men were drowned in that manner. The wind, which was favor, able to the brig, hindered it from taking fire on all sides, and bore it towards the Gulf of Natalia, where it was entirely consumed. Then the Greeks, hoping that the enemies, on seeing the misfor-tune of that brig, would have gone to its assistance, awaited in the same place the arrival of the other hostile vessels; from which they intended to throw themselves against them with their frigates, but the enemies were better occupied in saving themselves. At 1 o'clock, P.M. the brave Papodtis commanding a fire ship, went ahead against a frigate, to which he communicated the Greek fire with the greatest skill, which tended to warm the enemies on board, whose blood was chilled by fear. That brave man resisted for half an hour the heavy musket fire of the enemy, he lost two of his men, who ascended to heaven with cries of triumph, & he himself had a slight wound in the leg.– Then we sent another fire ship, commanded by Captain Papikiottis, who set fire to the other side of the same frigate, and in that manner that fine frigate fell a victim to the flames of the Greeks, near the shores of Jeronta. It was a Tunisian frigate, and had more than 900 enemies on board. The commander was the bravest and most skillful of all the enemy's officers. He had under his command eight other vessels of the Tunisian division. He and a Bimbasi. (Commander of 100 men) of Mehemet Ali, threw themselves into the sea to save themselves, and were taken alive by the Greeks, and now they are on board of the vessel of Capt. Chamados.-At 3 o'clock P.M. the enemy, seeing the terrible sight of the conflagration of the frigate, began to flee. One would have said, that the flames were so brilliant at that time, in order to shew the enemy in its full light the triumph of the Greeks. Among our sailors were only killed or wounded those mentioned above. One soldier alone was killed by the enemy's fire. We send you by the vessel which bears this, all the wounded. One of the masts of the vessel of the Vice Admiral Sactouris was somewhat damaged. The enemy's force only consists in the size of their vessels and the numbers of their cannons. - The so much boasted organized troops of the Egyptians consist of a few heartless boys, a thousand of whom would stand little chance against a single Greek. We are sure of this, since we have seen it from those who threw themselves into the sea and were taken alive. It is really astonishing how the Pacha of Egypt could have thought of success from such a childish expedition. And now we can see that, not being able to injure Greece in any other manner, he wished to infect our country with the impure blood of these Arab children, and with their carcasses.
Respectable Fellow-Citizens, these are the victories and the trophies which the Greeks have as yet offered to their injured country.- The Almighty God has filled our hearts with enthusiasm, and these victories have been obtained not only by stratagem but also by open combat. -I am, with greatest respect, your obedient fellow-citizen.
-(Signed) ANDREAS MIAULIS.
Jeronta (anciently Posidonium) Aug. 30 0.s. (11 September,) 1824.
Connecticut Mirror February 14, 1825: Spirit of the Turkish Government.
We have frequently had occasion to express our strong wishes that the British Govern-ment would at length adopt some more active part in favor of the Greek Cause, and would even deviate, in some degree, from the strict rule of the National Law, to render so great a service to the common cause of Christendom. We are not, indeed, unaware, that main and established principles must not be sacrificed, or even weakened, in favor of parcicular cases, or, in other words, that the general rule must be violated, because it may occasionally bear hard upon an individual instance.
It is an unquestionable rule in national law that one nation shall not interpose in a civil war between another nation and its own subjects, except in the way of friendly mediation.
But to this rule, as to all others, there is, we imagine, an exception, and this exception occurs, where the conduct of the parties is such as to affect the right and duties of neigh, boring nations. Now, as respects the Greeks and Turks, we hesitate not to say, that this is the precise state of things. Everyday brings us intelligence that an atrocious system of extermination is now the policy of Turkish Government, and that the Greeks, unless victorious will be exterminated. This state of circumstances, therefore, brings their case within the express terms of the exception above stated and constitutes that the extreme condition of things, under which another and a higher duty interposes to set aside the ordinary rule of the law of nations. The law of nations is, let no one interpose between a nation and its rebellious subjects, because such an interference is contrary to the great rule of the independence of nations as to each other. The exceptions, -But where the operations of any neighboring nation, whether extreme or internal, are such as to affect the safety, the duty or the honor of its neighbors, there, such neighbors may interfere, because, under such effects, the cause becomes their own. To defend their own safety and honour [sic] is, of course, a right of self defence [sic]. To perform their own paramount duties, -to defend the first laws of God and nature, -to take up arms against a system of extermination and massacre, and to protect those of the same religion as themselves from extermination upon the ground of their religion, are all, -not rights, but paramount obligations, and therefore constitute an exception to all positive rules whatever.
So far as to the question of right; and those considerations are, indeed, so decisively root-ed in our minds, that we have not the hesitation of a moment in saying, that there cannot exist two opinions as the right of assisting the Greeks. It is, indeed, totally another question, what is the line of prudence –what that of policy.
The main principle here is that if we assist the Greeks in their present contest, we destroy the Turkish Empire. We pull down one of the barriers against the predominance of the Russian power, and, in fact give Turkey to Russia. Either, we must endeavor to establish the emancipated Greeks as an independent Power under British protection, or we must at once give them to Russia. In the first case, we give direct offence to Russia and, perhaps, provoke a general war on the Continent; at any rate, a particular war against ourselves. In all events, we sever all the great and rich provinces of Turkey from the body of her Empire, and put her out of condition of defending herself-Russia would instantly march to Constantinople, which must fall almost without defence [sic]. The Asiatic provinces would follow, and Russia thus become our neighbor upon the Indian frontier.
All these considerations are certainly very important, and, we think, fully justify our Statesmen in the delay and reluctance which have occurred through all this business. We have had enough of war, and Russia is already too strong, too restless, too ambitious, to be unnecessarily provoked.
But, as regards the spirit of the Turkish Government, and the necessity of doing some-thing, we think that a recent event must produce some effect. A paper now before us contains a Firman [sic] of the Grand Signor, by which all the Turkish Magistrates and Authorities are commanded to burn all the copies of the Gospels and Bible, which may be found in their several districts. “We have learned,” says the Proclamation, “that many thousands of books such as the Bible, the Gospels, the Psalters, and the Epistles of the Apostles, have been recently printed in Europe, and that some hundreds of them have been landed for distribution in my Empire; be it, therefore, ordered, &c, that all such be collected, and forthwith burned; and that, if any ships bring such cargoes in future, the said ships shall be obliged to take them back again to Europe.”
This Firman [sic], however, is moderate enough in comparison of the spirit with which it is executed. “It was no sooner made public in this city,” says a letter from Aleppo, “than the Cadi called together the Chiefs of the several Christian communities, and com-manded them (the Chiefs,) to enjoin all Christians to deliver up any of their books which might have, adding, that he would hang any Christian who should be discovered to have a Bible or Testament in his possession."
It is surely unnecessary to add another word upon the subject. We trust that there are many amongst us, and even among those in high station, who will sympathise [sic] in this condition of their brother Christians, and will feel that a state of things has arisen, under which it is our bounden duty to contribute something in support of the common cause.
Bell's Weekly Messenger.
Niles' Weekly Register, March 19, 1825
Greece. Reports prevailed sometime ago, that the Greeks were distracted by civil contentions, and there appears to have been some foundation for them, but the latest advices assure us there “is really a government in Greece," and that the whole energies of the nation will be exerted for the common defence [sic] and general welfare. The great Egyptian fleet is no longer heard of. It is stated, that the Turkish garrison in Patras has been reduced to such an extremity, as to have proposed terms of capitulation, and the hostages that were given, on the occasion, are named. It is probable that this important place is, at least, in the hands of the Greeks.
It is said that “Omer Vrione, the Turkish commander in Albania, apprehensive of the treachery of the Divan, who, under the pretext of promoting him, are endeavoring to get him into their power, has opened negotiations with prince Mavrocodato; an armistice had been agreed to, and it was expected that the Pacha would declare himself independent. The instant he does so, a signal will be given for the dismemberment of the Ottoman empire. Every Pacha, remote from Constantinople, will, at once, raise himself from subjection to sovereignty. The wily viceroy of Egypt will be among the foremost to seize the golden opportunity for which he has so long been watching and dissembling. The Austrian Observer, the consistent and persevering friend of the Mahometans, asserts that they are resolved upon making their campaign with more vigor than ever. Their resolution may be very good, but we suspect their power will begin not a little to fail them. Every effort, it seems, however, will be made to call into the field a great levy of the Turkish forces. The Sultan, with his own hand-writing, has summoned the Pachas of Widden and Belgrade. Alarm has penetrated the Divan, and not without reason, for never was the empire of Constantinople in a more critical state. It is fighting now, not for victory, but for life.”
Niles' Weekly Register, July 30, 1825: Greek Official Papers.
FROM THE CONSTITUTIONEL.
Missolonghi, April 18. Notwithstanding every thing published by the Journal of Athens respecting Odysseus, there can be no longer doubt that he has become the enemy of the country, and of the present order of things. If circumstances hitherto have caused him to be looked upon as one of the best of chiefs, and so great a friend of liberty, that some have even compared him to the illustrious Bolivar, his character has, at last, discovered itself in its real colors. As soon as this man, who is only greedy of wealth, egotistical and ambitious, perceived that the laws were beginning to acquire force and effect, and that he could no longer exercise an illegal influence over public affairs, he joined the standard of anarchy, and refused to obey the order of government. In order to portray his character in its proper light, we publish his letter to the primates of Athens and their reply to it.
Gentlemen, primates of Athens, I embrace you.
I have addressed you numerous letters, to induce you to restore me my money, and you reply, by referring me to government. It was not to government I lent my money, but rather to yourselves, as may be seen by your signatures. I, therefore, write you once more, for the last time, that you send me back the money which I expended in provisioning your fortresses, and also my physician whom you refrain among you-otherwise, you may be assured, I will set about burning your olive trees and devastating your plains. Think not to intimidate me by the mention of your government; when I have reason on my side, I fear not God himself. In the course of five days, I shall expect a categorical answer on your part; and be sure not to forget that you will be answer, able for the misfortunes your refusal may bring upon this province.
The answer of the Athenian primates.
The answer of the Athenian primates. General Odysseus: We have received your letter, in which you menace us with the devastation of our plains and the burning of our olive trees, unless we send you back your money and your physician in the space of five days. That money, you know, has been expended by yourself in provisioning a citadel which belongs to the government; your physician has been employed as the surgeon of the garrison, and consequently performs a public function; we, therefore, recommended to you, and we still recommend you, to apply to government, who will not, certainly, be guilty of the least injustice towards you. Only make your claims known to the proper quarter, and you will receive satisfaction. As to the threats you make, we cannot be persuaded that we have any cause to apprehend that our plains or olive trees will be destroyed by that very Odysseus who, during four invasions, preserved them uninjured, and combatted so often to defend them.
THE PRIMATES OF ATHENS.
[In pursuance of his threat, Odysseus did, however, at the head of four hundred horse, men, make an irruption into Eastern Greece, and laboured [sic] to seduce his countrymen from their allegiance and join the Turkish standard. But he was met by general Gouras, who drove him, at the head of five hundred men, into Tarentum, where he was closely blocked up. This is the last official intelligence received of this traitor.]
Official intelligence-first dispatch.
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF GREECE.
The executive body to Messrs. John Orlando and Andreas Luriottis.
The government thinks necessary to inform you of the true state of affairs at present in Greece. It is very probable that report will have augmented the number of troops landed by Ibrahim Pacha at Modon, and Coron; learn, then, that the forces, disembarked by him at those places, do not exceed 8,000. It was a regular corps, consisting of Arab soldiers, and commanded by about forty European adventurers; six thousand only of them were fighting men, the rest were servants, such as grooms, &c. The were accompanied by about 350 horsemen, organized in the manner of the Mamelukes. This corps was able to advance to within eight hours' distance of Modon and Coron; but they were not able to do any injury-but, on the contrary, in a skirmish which took place with 1,000 Greeks, under our general, Pasos Mavromunlottis, they were forced to retire. As, however, our troops were not in readiness to oppose them, they advanced shortly after towards to Navarino, hoping to besiege and take that fortress; but it is too well defended, and too strong to be taken even by four times that number of enemies. Thus, up to this day, there have only been skirmishes, in which the enemy have lost 1,300 men. His excellency the president, Conduriottis, has been elected chief of the forces destined to besiege Patras, and it is several days since he proceeded on that expedition; but on account of the landing of the Arabs at Modon, he proceeded thither, and from thence he will march to Patras.
A corps of 8 to 10,000 men has entered into Western Greece. They must really imagine that they can strike terror into the deserts, since on advancing into Western Greece, they will only meet stones and guns, and if even they succeed in reaching the interior, they will find that Anatolico and Missolonghi are impregnable.
In Eastern Greece there have only appeared 400 horsemen, accompanied by the renegade Odysseus, who, not being able to seduce the people to his traitorous opinions, threw off the mask, deserted to the Turks, and took up arms against his country; but the brave general Gouras, with a force of 5,000 chosen men, attacked him, and drove him, with his companions, to Taren-tum; he keeps them closely blockaded up there, and we think that shortly Odysseus and his troops will experience the fate they merit.
The enemy have begun the campaign this year much earlier than usual; and we do not doubt that this fifth campaign they will employ all their efforts; but we also confidently hope and believe, that those exertions will fail, and that the Greeks, by brilliant victories, will advance their independence. The government is occupied in expediting three strong corps of troops-one will be stationed at Volo, one is destined for the besieging of Negroponte, and the other for Agrapha. A fourth corps, of less strength, will be stationed at Patranziki.
According to all appearances, the Sultan has placed all his hopes on two forces-that of the Albanians, and that of Mehemed Ali Pacha. As to the Egyptians, we have spoken of them above; and as to the Albanians, the experience of four years has taught us what may be expected from them, especially on comparing our forces of this year with those of the preceding campaign. Our vessels also are cruising on the coasts of Albania.
Napoli di Romania, April 4, 1825, 0.5.
The executive body to Messrs. John Orlando and Andreas Luriottis.
The enemy before Navarino, having experienced defeats at various times, is, at present, in dis-tress, and is endeavoring to retire into the fortresses of Modon and Coron. We hope that none of them will escape us, and that their present position may serve them as a salutary lesson. On the 31st March, (12th April), a curious engagement took place. About one hundred Greeks, under general Macrojanis, sallied out of the fortress, sword in hand, threw themselves on the centre [sic] of the enemy, and, after having killed more than 500, according to the most authentic information we have received, they returned into the fortress, laden with booty, having lost only one of their companions, and with only seven slightly wounded.
It is also proper to inform you of the heroic action of John Mavro Michaelis, son of Petros Mavro Michaelis. That young man, accompanied by his brother George, had hardly learned that the enemy advanced towards Navarino, when he went to throw himself into that fortress with a body of soldiers. Unwilling to remain in the fortress, he sallied forth and threw himself on the enemy, and occasioned them a considerable loss. Death, however, deprived us of this young but worthy patriot; he received, in that engagement, a mortal wound. The government, having remarked the sincere zeal of Petros Mavro Michaelis, who himself persuaded his sons to perform that heroic feat, restored him to all those civil rights, of which circumstances had obliged it to deprive him last year. At present, he is united with the other patriots who bravely vindicate the rights of their country.
We give you the agreeable news of a victory obtained by our brave Gouras over Odysseus and his Turkish companions. We have sent you the details of that affair by Mr. K.
The Lively has arrived here with l.60,000, from London.
We have received the contract of the second English loan, and have forwarded it to you with the ratification.
Napoli di Romania, 11th, (23rd), April, 1825
Niles' Weekly Register, September 24, 1825“LEGITIMACY.” Zante, July 6. The martyrdom of a monk of the convent of the Virgin Mary, in Mount Aracynthe, is the subject of admiration among the faithful here. This old man, having been brought before the tribunal of Roaschid Pacha, and asked what his name was, answered, “Ambrose." - “Your country?" demanded his persecutors. "The monastery of the Holy Virgin,” replied the monk. “And your dwelling?” “My dwelling place,” said he, “were these rocks until they were levelled by your soldiers; and soon,” lifting up a cross at the same time, “my dwelling will be in Heaven.” “What have you done with the sacred vessels of the church?” “I have rescued them from the defilement of your soldiers.” “Where are they?” “That secret rests with myself.” “Speak!” “You may put my body to the rack: God only has power over my soul.” They immediately began to apply the torture; not a word, however, escaped him but "Kyrie eleison!” and “Lord have mercy on me!” They drove sharp instruments under his finger-nails; but the martyr glorified God, and prayed for his persecutors; who, enraged by his patience of suffering, impaled him, and left him to perish in view of the trenches of Missolonghi. This news was communicated by a Piedmontese deserter. Such are the cortures to which Christians are subjected in the nineteenth century. (Yes—but do Chris-tians use Christians any better? Were not the scalps of women and children bought at Malden in 1813? Was there not a massacre of the wounded at the river Raisin? And, what is doing in Spain?]
Niles' Weekly Register, October 8, 1825A KING OF GREECE! There is a long article published in the papers, signed “Captain Nicolas Kiefala,” and addressed “to his holiness Leo. XII.” “in the name of the provincial government, and of all the learned ecclesiastics of Greece,” praying the interference of “the most holy father,” that the emperor of Germany and the king of France may be interested in the cause of the Greeks, and nominate and appoint some Christian, catholic and apostolic prince, the issue of any one of the numerous reigning families, to be the king of the Greeks, and proposing a union between the Roman catholic and the Greek churches. It is not said from whence this paper came, and it is without a date. It is probably a manufacture, with a view to some political object or speculation.
Greece. Whatever advantages the Turks and Egyptians have gained in their war with the Greeks, are said to be owing to the Christian officers who lead the battalions of the barbarians. A gallant French commander, general Roche, who is in the Greek service, complains of this, and mentions, besides, that a hundred European vessels have been hired as transports to the Egyptians; that convoy and cannon are furnished to the invaders, &c.
The Greek committee of Boston, have received letters from general Jarvis, captain Miller, and Dr. Howe, Americans in the Greek service. The following passage is from a joint letter signed by all three of these gentlemen:
As to the progress of the revolution, we jointly give it as our opinion that, taking into consideration all things, the Greeks have exerted themselves beyond every thing [sic] that could be reasonably expected; and judging from the past and the present state of affairs, we do not hesitate in saying that we believe they will succeed in establishing their freedom. Two hundred thousand Turks have already perished in this sanguinary contest. There are now in Greece more than two hundred thousand stand of arms; which, though not good, are nevertheless equal to the Turks. Order is daily gaining ground, with the principles of rational liberty learned in the school of adversity. We would exhort the friends of Greece in America, to exert themselves for this suffering people, remembering that the struggle is not yet over.
A Trieste account, dated July 2, says—Letters from Syra, of the 8th of July, while they confirm the account of the death of the celebrated Bobolina [sic], give the following details of that melancholy event: Her daughter had encouraged professions of tender attachment on the part of a young Greek of Spezzia, which her mother entirely disapproved of. After a series of fruitless negotiations, the young man at length presented himself before the mother to demand, for the last time, the hand of her amiable daughter. Bobolina [sic] refused him in the most preemptory and obdurate manner, upon which the young Greek, reduced to despair, fired, in a fit of frenzy, a pistol at this unfortunate parent, in the very presence of her daughter, and deprived her of her life. All the letters which we have received, agree in relating this melancholy affair as we have stated it. It is stated that Lord Cochrane who, it seems, is to assist the Greeks, will direct his chief attention to the attack of Turkish fortresses on the coast, and in laying the open towns under contribution; chereby to break up the military and commercial correspondence of the barbarians.
Niles' Weekly Register, November 22, 1825... The Turks have been repelled in four attacks on Missolonghi, and with great loss. In the last, they got possession of several parts of the fortifications, but were driven out, leaving more than 3000 men killed, wounded and prisoners-one account says they lost 9000 men. The captain pacha had retired to Patras, to avoid the Greek fleet under Miaulis, but it is said with loss of some of his vessels. The rest were blocked up by the Greeks. It is stated that Sachturis, with 28 vessels, and 10 fire ships, under the famous Canaris, had sailed for Egypt, to destroy the feet about to sail for Alexandria, with reinforcements for Ibrahim. Accounts from Hydra say that the Greeks led out about 200 Turks, whom they have long held in captivity, and butchered them in the streets -after which they killed many Turks that they had kept as slaves. The cause of this is stated to have been a Turk who fired the magazine of a Greek vessel, destroying himself and all her crew, except 20. Orders had been issued to the Greek fleets, said to amount to 75 sail, to take no more prisoners. It is thought that Ibrahim may have heard of those proceedings-for he has caused a massacre of all the women and children at Salona! The Greeks have late-ly blown up a Turkish frigate, (Venetian built), with 400 men. Mr. Allen, an Ameri, can volunteer in the Greek service, particularly describes the awful event. The Greeks appear to fight as with desperate courage. Bozzaris and Nicetas greatly distinguished themselves at Missolonghi.
Source: Constantine G. Hatzidimitriou, Founded on Freedom and Virtue: Documents Illustrating the Impact in the United States of the Greek War of Independence, 1821-1829 (New Rochelle, New York: Aristide D. Caratzas, 2002).